VI.88 Surely the most neglected among the frequent PATTERNS in the real GRAMMAR of English is the NON-CLAUSE,[Note 16] a discourse unit which serves the functions of a CLAUSE without having the form of SUBJECT plus VERB. In speaking, it occurs as an UTTERANCE in a distinct TONE GROUP, and usually with at least one STRONG STRESS; in writing, it occurs as a SENTENCE beginning with a capital letter and ending with a period. School “grammars” would spurn it as a “sentence fragment”, a heinous error vilified on the Internet as a “grammar outlaw” (cf. VI.74) -- a rebel without a clause, so to speak. Linguistic “grammars” would re-tailor it into a CLAUSE that happens to be “subjectless” or “verbless” (or both), or which, for obscure motives, has undergone “ellipsis” but is still “understood” as a CLAUSE (cf. VI.111). Both moves obey staid notions of English “grammar” modelled on “formal” written English.
VI.89 In authentic discursive practice, NON-CLAUSES are essential as functional and prosodic units. One recent survey found them to constitute more than one third of all units in a sample of English conversation.[Note 17] They are natural products of cooperative interaction, as in [371-72] (BNC data).
 Ruth: you’ve got some imbeciles coming! Paul: Who are they? Ruth: [laughing] Well mainly the children. Paul: Dunno them. Ruth: Your cousins.
 Margaret: Do you remember that great big jumble sale they had that raised over a thousand pounds? They had under the erm Richard: What, the Scouts? Terence: multi-storey? Margaret: Yeah. Richard: Four or five years ago now.
Written English too can produce abundant NON-CLAUSES , especially when representing conversation .
 John Major is now being exposed for what some of us always warned that he was. A fake. A flake. A wimp. A phoney. (Daily Mirror)
 “I thought it was appalling”, she said. “What d’you mean, appalling?” “The noise. The dirt. The mindless, repetitive work.” (Nice Work)
VI.90 In respect to position, the LOOK-AHEAD NON-CLAUSE points forward to a MAJOR CLAUSE, as in ; the LOOK-BACK NON-CLAUSE points backward, as in ; and the FREE NON-CLAUSE stands alone without pointing to any nearby CLAUSE, as in .
 My noble father. He is looking down on us now (Man and Superman)
 Something of a surprise. You being here. And in your cab. (Suburban Dead)
 They found him in a trance. […] “Glorious, stirring sight!” murmured Toad. (Wind in the Willows)
VI.91 In the organisation of CONVERSATIONAL TURNS among several speakers, a NON-CLAUSE can point ahead to the next TURN ; or, far more commonly, it points back to the previous TURN . Or again, it can share a TURN with a CLAUSE  or with another NON-CLAUSE .
 “You and I —” “We shall always remember him”, I said, hastily. (Heart of Darkness)
 “You sound very dull”, Katharine remarked. “Merely middle class”. Denham replied. (Night and Day)
 “But that’s you. Your handwriting.” (Chung Kuo)
 “Sorry”, I shouted. “My fault. Should have spotted it myself.” (Uncle Albert)
VI.92 The BALANCE favouring the PREDICATE over the SUBJECT in the English CLAUSE, noted back in IV.271, may suggest why the SUBJECT is more often missing than the VERB, and is easier to leave out in context [382-83]. Even so, NON-CLAUSES without a VERB, as in , are no rarity.
 Gets a bit lonely since our accident, you know. Can’t get about. (Samaritan)
 “What do you think they does?” “Don’t know.” “Gets up a grand tea drinkin”. (Pickwick)
 But Baldwin and Mrs B. are wonderful. Never a word of bitterness or complaint. (Constitutional Texts)
VI.93 All four of the MAJOR CLAUSE TYPES reviewed in IV.C.1-4 have corresponding MINOR NON-CLAUSES. A NON-CLAUSE STATEMENT can range from a single WORD in  to an extensive PHRASE . Each usually has at least one CERTAIN STRONG STRESS, often for END WEIGHT, and is set off by longer pauses conventionally marked in written English with periods and highlighted here with double upright lines. Stylistic effects can be quite impressive [387-88].
 She ¡took her·¡self ¡off for ¡long !walks to ¡pon·der in the !ice and !wind and !snow. | | !Cold. | | !Chill. | | !Freez·ing. | | !Wet. | | (I Believe in Angels)
 ¡She was !noth·ing to ¡him. | | ¡Just an·¡oth·er !wor·ship·per in a ¡long !string of !sub·jects. (Undo)
 The !door, her !moth·er ¡com·ing. | | !Sway·ing, !skel·e·tal, and her ¡face like !snow. | | !Clutch·ing ¡some·thing ¡wrapped in !pa·per. | | !Red on her !face and her !coat. (Lying Together)
 The ¡damp, ¡yel·low-¡brick !school·¡build·ing in its !cin·der·y !grounds. | | The ¡State !Bank, | !stuc·co ¡mask·ing !wood. | | The !Farm·ers’ ¡Na·tion·al !Bank. | | An I·¡on·ic !tem·ple of !mar·ble. (Main Street)
These series of NON-CLAUSES nicely invoke a disjointed series of visual impressions, e.g., for the spectral materialisation of the “mother” in ; or for the iconic representation of the planlessness of Gopher Prairie in , where “each man had built with the most valiant disregard of all the others” (Main Street).
VI.94 Several indicators suggest that such NON-CLAUSES can count as STATEMENTS and not just fortuitous leftovers. They can have their own topics, as in news headlines:
 Baker’s hard man “soft” on grammar (London Standard)
 Sri Lanka rebels ready for autonomy (BBC World News)
Also, they can have a MINOR CLAUSE depending on them, though such usages are not common in my data, e.g.:
 A fever. Which took Thérèse by the throat and shook her (Daughters)
 The winter. When things would be quieter maybe on the farm. (Oral history)BNC
And they can be loosely linked with “and” to a nearby CLAUSE, much like the NON-FINITES shown in VI.83, but without any VERB form:
 He was forever ill-treating her, and she too proud to complain. (Sherlock Holmes)
 At a Labour conference you get Gerry Adams turning up at a fringe meeting, and he the leader of Sinn Fein (Independent)
 It’s funny you should be calling on her, and you a respectable young lady (Ridgeway)
VI.95 One simple function of a NON-CLAUSE STATEMENT is to echo or repeat, e.g., to emphasize what you just said ; or to show you have taken in what someone else has said ; or to indicate some reservation about it .
 “In game-playing I always win. Always”, he emphasised. (My Heart)
 “I could rent a place like this next year. In September.” “September”, she repeated and listened to the rain. (same)
 “You write novels?” “Oh yes. That is, I want to write them”. “Novels”, she repeated. “Why do you write novels?” (Voyage Out)
A more elaborate function is to supply an ITEM or PATTERN that might otherwise have been integrated into a nearby CLAUSE, such as a MODIFIER , DIRECT OBJECT , or ADVERBIAL . But sometimes no plausible format for integrating is readily indicated .
 The barmaid caught my eye in the mirror. Beautiful. (Other Country)
 I have various packets. And the tin of milk. And a plum. And a peach. (What’s It Like Out)
 It just took off like a rocket from there. Every night. All the time. (Living with Heroin)
 He was beautiful, your brother. Always a fair price. Always there. (Payback)
 Their nerves burned like open sores on a dog’s neck. White knuckles. Wild eyes. (Fear and Loathing on the Campaign Trail)
Common too are FREE NON-CLAUSE STATEMENTS whose main function is to comment on something in the communicative situation:
 They found Mr. Jarvis greasing a cat’s paws with butter. “A fine animal”, said Psmith. (Psmith)
 He took from De Gautet a bottle which he carried, and put it to his lips. “Hardly a drop! he cried discontentedly, and flung it in the moat. (Zenda)
 Grace appeared at the doorway with a tray in her hands, holding sandwiches, French fries, two glasses of milk. “Time for a break, boys.” “Ah, relief”, Byron said. (Undo)
 Mac eyed George’s retreating back till he had turned the corner. “A nice pleasant gentleman, Mr. Bevan”, he said. (Damsel)
VI.96 Like the separated DEPENDENT CLAUSES reviewed in VI.74, NON-CLAUSE STATEMENTS are popular for answering QUESTIONS.
 “Who is Glinda?” inquired the Scarecrow. “The Witch of the South”. (Oz)
 “What’s the matter with him?” “Just crazy drunk”. (Jungle)
 “Are you drunk?” “Tolerable sober, my angel”, returns Mr. Bucket. (Bleak House)
 “Where is the book?” “In the laboratory.” (Egoist)
By contrast, full CLAUSES might sound quite inappropriate. Even in carefully composed discourse like , they could create an irritable or pedantic impression; and in casual talk like  from BNC data, they could seem baldly out of place.
 Algernon: What brings you up to town?
Jack: Oh, pleasure, pleasure! […] [compare: Pleasure brings me up to town.]
Algernon: Where have you been since last Thursday?
Jack: In the country. […] [compare: I have been in the country since last Thursday] (Oscar Wilde, Importance of Being Earnest)
 Ruth : Have you got two tens you want to change for a twenty, Paul? Paul: No, sorry. (BNC) [compare: No, I am sorry that I have not got two tens I want to change for a twenty.]
The version shown for  could seem almost as stern as saying “I can’t bother with you”
VI.97 NON-CLAUSE STATEMENTS can be strategically positioned near the ITEM they look toward in a nearby CLAUSE. A LOOK-AHEAD NON-CLAUSE STATEMENT might look toward a SUBJECT  more naturally than toward an OBJECT ; a LOOK-BACK NON-CLAUSE STATEMENT might look toward an added OBJECT  more naturally than to an added SUBJECT .
 A very fierce-looking man, Don Carlos. He asked me for a cigar in a most familiar manner. (Nostromo)
 James Cardiff. You remember him. Chap with red hair (Nudists)
 He went away, taking his men with him. And the guns of course. (WouldBeGoods)
 Tildy came -- a midnight beauty, with starry eyes and tapering limbs. And her brother, correspondingly homely. And then the big boys. (Souls of Black Folk)
Similarly, NON-CLAUSES in the function of ADVERBIALS, such as PLACE or TIME, typically resemble LOOK-BACK STATEMENTS [418-19], recalling the unmarked position of ADVERBIALS in a complete CLAUSE (cf. IV.290).
 You must come here at once, Lord Wisbeach. To-night. To-day. (Picadilly Jim)
 We’re still in the office block. In the basement. (Darkfall)
VI.98 NON-CLAUSE STATEMENTS can also be followed by TAG STATEMENTS, such as PRO-NOUN + “be”-VERB [420-21], or DEMONSTRATIVE + “be”-VERB [422-23], or just DEMONSTRATIVE [424-25]. The NON-CLAUSE can carry a STRONG STRESS, whilst these TAGS probably prefer WEAK STRESS.
 Scientific !gen·tle·man, | ¡he was. (Adversary)
 My God! Mean as !muck, | ¡they are. (Rag Nymph)
 Sweaty !work, | ¡this is. (Green behind the Glass)
 Good drop of !gin, | ¡that was. (Ulysses)
 A gay old !grand·pa, | ¡this. (Octopus)
 Took some !do·ing, | ¡that. (Chickens)
In PROSODY, the usual PATTERN of NON-CLAUSE plus TAG has two falling CONTOURS separated by a short pause, one with STRONG STRESS for END WEIGHT and one with WEAK STRESS on the PRO-NOUN . In a clear PROSODIC contrast, a STATEMENT CLAUSE with a FRONTED SUBJECT COMPLEMENT has one long falling CONTOUR with FRONT WEIGHT and a merely mechanical END WEIGHT without FOCUS, as shown in .
VI.99 Once more like MAJOR STATEMENTS, NON-CLAUSE STATEMENTS can be followed by FRAMING TAGS (cf. VI.78).
 !So·ber !ser·i·ous !man with a ¡bit in the !sav·ings-¡bank, ¡I’d say. (Ulysses)
 “¡Same !suit”, said ¡Tup·pe. “¡Same !man, I’m ¡tel·ling you.” (Ultimate Truths)
 They’re par·¡tic·u·lar at the ¡Na·tion·al !Gal·ler·y. !Gov·ern·¡ment !show, you ¡know. (Adversary)
 She often ¡said she’d ¡like to !vis·it. !Slum·ming. The ex·!ot·ic, you ¡see. (Ulysses)
VI.100 NON-CLAUSE QUESTIONS are abundantly attested:
 Kent banish’d thus? And France in choler parted? And the King gone to-night? Subscrib’d his pow’r? Confin’d to exhibition? All this done upon the gad? (King Lear)
With greater intensity than NON-CLAUSE STATEMENTS, LOOK-BACK QUESTIONS repeat specific ITEMS to indicate some reservation [433-34]. The repeated ITEMS may be included in a NON-CLAUSE QUESTION-WORD QUESTION with “what” , “where” , or “who” .
 “That was brave.” “!Brave?” She ¡ech·oed the word in·!cred·u·lous·ly. “!Brave?” (Lover’s Charade)
 “You can ¡stay the !week·¡end.” ¡Rob·yn ¡stared a·!ghast. “!Stay the !week·¡end?” (Garden)
 You ¡ought to ¡get !ready”, she ¡said. “Get ¡ready for !what?” (Bury the Dead)
 “I want a ¡tick·et to ¡Cal·i·!for·ni·a, ¡please.” “¡Cal·i·¡for·ni·a !where?” (Alternative Assembly)
 “Have they ¡ta·ken him to !pris·on yet?” “¡Ta·ken !who to ¡pris·on?” (Affair at Styles)
VI.101 The omission of the SUBJECT in QUESTIONS works better when the AGENT or MEDIUM of the PROCESS VERB would be the hearer [439-39] than if it would be the speaker [440-41].
 ¡Found the ¡lost !ball? ¡Good !man! ¡Want an·y !tea? (Room with a View)
 “¡Com·ing back to !din·ner?” his ¡wife ¡called ¡af·ter him. (Awakening)
 This ¡chick on the !stool ¡looked ¡like ¡Cle·o·!pat·ra. “¡Buy you a !drink?” I said. (Money)
 I be·gan to !ques·tion myself ex·!ac·tly !what I was ¡do·ing. ¡Give you an ex·!am·ple? (Whirlpool)
The hearer can also be expressed as a PRO-NOUN with no VERB but with a MODIFIER , COMPLEMENT , or ADVERBIAL .
 “¡You en·!gaged?” said an A·¡mer·i·can !sol·dier who ¡asked me to ¡dance. (Enigma)
 “The !bar·bies [barbiturates]. I ¡should’ve !test·ed them.” “¡You a !phar·ma·cist?” (Payback)
 “You in !bed?” he ¡asked, his !fore·¡head ¡twitch·ing. (Howard’s End)
VI.102 Among the QUESTION-WORD-QUESTIONS, those with “why” are most likely to be NON-CLAUSES, e.g., with a NOUN PHRASE  or an ADVERBIAL .
 ¡Why ¡cu·cum·ber !sand·¡wich·es? ¡Why such ¡reck·less ex·!trav·a·gance in ¡one so !young? (Importance of Being Earnest)
 !Stoop·ing, ¡Mr. ¡Scho·field dis·¡cov·ered his !son !squat·ting ¡un·der the pi·!an·o, near an ¡o·pen !win·dow. “!Why ¡under the pi·!an·o?” (Penrod)
VI.103 On occasion, a LOOK-BACK NON-CLAUSE QUESTION follows up a MAJOR CLAUSE QUESTION to test a prospective ANSWER. A NOUN PHRASE may be supplied to look back to the SUBJECT as AGENT , a SUBJECT COMPLEMENT as IDENTITY , an OBJECT as POSSESSION , or a STATE as ATTRIBUTE .
 ¡Who said !two·¡pence? The ¡gen·tle·¡man in the !scare·¡crow’s !hat? (Marigold)
 ¡What do you ¡think I !am? A ¡bust·ed !book·¡keep·er? (Babbitt)
 ¡What do you ¡aim to a·!chieve? A ¡cash !in·come? (Smallholding)
 ¡Dear !Duch·ess, and ¡how is the !Duke? ¡Brain ¡still !weak? (Ideal Husband)
VI.104 Like the TAG STATEMENTS in VI.91, TAG QUESTIONS can link to NON-CLAUSES:
 A !ner·vy ¡litt·le ¡thing, ¡is·n’t she? (Paper Faces).
 “¡Good !fight·ers, ¡are they?” “Re·!nowned.” (Chung Kuo)
 ¡I don’t ¡think I’ve ¡seen your ¡books in the !shops. ¡Sell !well, ¡do they? (Raven)
So too can FRAMING TAG QUESTIONS like those shown in VI.79:
 A !Spe·cial !Forc·es ¡pub, do you ¡think? (Ultimate Truths)
 A !wom·an’s !writ·ing, would you ¡say? (Patently Murder)
 “He is !griev·ing ¡ver·y !deep·ly.” “For his !child, don’t you ¡see?” (Chymical Wedding)
VI.105 NON-CLAUSE EXCLAMATIONS are abundant too -- probably because EXCLAMATIONS most readily dispense with CLAUSE format:
 “¡What a ¡fun·ny !nose!” “¡Not so ¡fun·ny as !yours, ¡mad·am”. (Blue Fairy)
 As ¡us·u·al they are ¡talk·ing !pol·i·tics. ¡How !tire·¡some! (Awakening)
Moreover, most NON-CLAUSE PATTERNS can function as an EXCLAMATION, such as a NOUN PHRASE [459-60], a MODIFIER , a VERB PHRASE , an ADVERBIAL , and of course an INTERJECTION .
 ¡Hook ¡stood !shud·dering, one ¡foot in the !air. “The !croc·o·¡dile!” he ¡gasped. (Peter Pan)
 !No !More !San·ta! ¡My ¡poor !ba·by was ¡to·tal·ly !scared to !death of that ¡jol·ly ¡old !fat ¡man. (Holy Weblog)WWW
 ¡Cape ¡Bret·on an !is·land! !Won·der·ful! (Macaulay)
 ¡I !stayed there. ¡Nev·er ¡lost an !inch! (conversation)BNC
 “Would you in·¡duce ¡Mr. !Lex·man to ¡lec·ture at !my ¡house?” “At ¡Por·tman !Place!” (Twisted)
 ¡Holmes !whis·tled. “¡By !George! It’s at·¡tempt·ed !mur·der at the ¡least.” (Sherlock Holmes)
Only a few NON-CLAUSE EXCLAMATIONS are LOOK-AHEADS, typically a NOUN PHRASE about to be repeated in another NON-CLAUSE EXCLAMATION [464-66]; on occasion, it can point ahead to the SUBJECT of an upcoming CLAUSE 
 Sir ¡John ¡cut in !fierce·ly. “A !lie! A !lie to ¡save that !foul !vil·lain’s !neck!” (Sea Hawk)
 he be·¡gan to !trem·ble, then to ¡sob like a !child, and at ¡last ¡spoke, through his !tears: “A !sail! A !sail -- and ¡head·ing !towards us!” (Miss Bartram’s Trouble)
 ¡Good !rid·er! He’s ¡through it a·!gain. (Western World)
Far more numerous are LOOK-BACKS, which, like the NON-CLAUSE QUESTIONS in VI.95, can repeat ITEMS for emphasis or challenge.
 “She’d ¡bet·ter ¡give me your !mar·ried ¡name.” I was !reel·ing with ¡shock. “!Mar·ried!” (West of Bohemia)
 “Ma·¡til·da is a !gen·i·us.” At the ¡men·tion of this ¡word, ¡Miss !Trunch·¡bull’s ¡face ¡turned !pur·ple and her ¡whole !bod·y seemed to ¡swell !up like a !bull·¡frog’s. “!A !gen·iu·s!” (Matilda)
 “I nev·er !saw such a ¡gun in my !life”, said ¡Mr ¡Win·kle. “It goes ¡off of its ¡own ac·!cord. It !will ¡do it.” “!Will ¡do it!” ¡ech·oed ¡Ward·le, with ¡ir·ri·¡ta·tion (Pickwick)
LOOK-BACK can also supply PATTERNS that could have been integrated into the foregoing CLAUSE as a SUBJECT  or an OBJECT .
 ¡How you must !miss her! And ¡dear !Em·ma, ¡too! What a !dread·ful ¡loss to you !both! (Emma)
 Be·!ware the !Jab·ber·¡wock, my ¡son! The ¡jaws that !bite, the ¡claws that !catch! (Alice)
Numerous too are FREE NON-CLAUSES for exclaiming about the situation, as shown back in VI.95:
 ¡An·na ¡stared over the ¡sweep of !lawns. “A !wat·er·¡fall!” she ex·¡claimed. (Warning)
 She ¡looked into the !cir·cle of their ca·!bal, and ¡saw what had !oc·cu·pied them. “A ¡dolls’ !tea ¡par·ty!” she ex·¡claimed. (Sign for the Sacred)
These include the EVALUATIONS of one’s audience as “you”, usually PEJORATIVE:
 “You ¡thank·less !dog!” ¡gasped ¡Mrs. ¡Brown. “You !im·pu·dent in·!sul·ting !dog!” (Dombey)
 You ¡ig·nor·ant ¡lit·tle !slug! You ¡wit·less !weed! You ¡emp·ty-¡head·ed !ham·ster! You ¡stu·pid ¡glob of !glue! (Matilda)
VI.106 INTERJECTIONS are in the main NON-CLAUSE EXCLAMATIONS of ATTITUDE whose functions strongly outrank their forms (IV.298-331), which can thus be diverse
 By !God! ¡Yes, I’ll ¡beat her !yet. ¡Oh !lord! I ¡feel !sick. (House of Women)
 “I ¡want to be a !nat·ur·al·ist — ¡like !you.” “!Humph! — ¡Well! — ¡Dear !me! — You ¡don’t !say!” ¡mur·mured the ¡Doc·tor. (Dolittle)
 !Yuck! I am !filth·y! ¡All !blood·y! (Oxford English programme)BNC
 “My ¡man’s ¡ver·y !ang·ry.” “!Phew!” said the ¡bul·locks. “He ¡must be !white!” “Of !course he ¡is,” said ¡Vix·en. “!Huah! !Ouach! !Ugh!” (Jungle Book)
“White men” in India were hungry not just for power, but also for beef.
VI.107 NON-CLAUSES taking STRONG STRESS can be followed by TAG EXCLAMATIONS putting WEAK STRESS on the PRO-VERB.
 “!Mar·vel·lous, ¡isn’t he!” “He ¡cer·tain·ly !spoke ¡well.” (Maggie)
 ¡That’s the !sew·er ¡rats. !Aw·ful, ¡isn’t it! (conversation)BNC
FRAMING TAGS can occur as EXCLAMATIONS too:
 ¡Won·der·ful !weath·er, ¡La·dy ¡Dev·er·ill! !Per·fect, ¡I’d say! (In Sunshine)
 Did you ¡see the !hands of your !boy? !Wom·an’s ¡hands, I ¡tell you! (Deliria)
VI.108 NON-CLAUSE COMMANDS lack only the FINITE VERB needed for the status of a CLAUSE, since no SUBJECT is required. Also, they lack most functions of STATEMENTS, QUESTIONS, and EXCLAMATIONS as NON-CLAUSES, and so are less abundant. On the AFFIRMATIVE side, lone ADVERBS or ADVERBIALS may be ENACTIVE COMMANDS to move, or DISPOSITIVES to move something or someone [485-487]. EMPHATIC STRONG STRESS can be signalled in writing with EXCLAMATION MARKS.
 “¡Up·!stairs. I will ¡not have ¡you ¡two !bick·er·ing.” “But I ¡was·n’t —” “¡Up·!stairs!” (On the Edge)
 “¡Have you a !pass·¡port?” ¡asked the ¡rat. “!Out with your !pass·¡port!” (Blue Fairy)
 !Mag·gie !Thatch·er !rules! !Down with the !poor! !Up with the !rich! (conversation)BNC
VI.109 NEGATIVE COMMANDS can be formed with PARTICIPLE or a NOUN PHRASE following “no” [488-89], or, in a few COLLIGATIONS “not”  or “none” .
 Now ¡shut yer !eyes. ¡No !peek·ing! (Twist of Fate)
 ¡Sham·lou’s ¡smile !van·ished. “No !ques·tions!” (Sons of Heaven)
 we ¡heard the ¡coach ¡stop at the ¡lit·tle ¡gar·den !gate, which ¡brought my ¡aunt and ¡Dor·a !home. “¡Not a !word, boy!” Mr ¡Dick pur·¡sued in a !whis·per (Copperfield)
 On ¡ Mr !Heath·¡cliff's ¡tak·ing a !seat and ¡bid·ding him “¡come !hith·er”, he ¡hid his ¡face on my !shoul·der and !wept. “!Tut, ¡tut”,” said ¡Heath·¡cliff, “¡None of that !non·¡sense! ¡We're not ¡go·ing to !hurt thee, ¡Lin·ton! (Wuthering Heights)
VI.110 The status of DEPENDENT NON-CLAUSES is variable or unclear. They could plausibly be introduced by a DEPENDENT CONJUNCTION but lack the form of SUBJECT and VERB required for a DEPENDENT CLAUSE. I found just a few like [492-93] actually marked off as separate units; apparently, the CONJUNCTIONS discourage separation.
 If he !does ¡lean on ¡Gra·ham a·!gain ¡af·ter to·!mor·row, then I’ll ¡stand !up and be !count·ed. ¡Af·ter to·!mor·row. If !nec·es·sar·y. (Meddlers)
 She ¡searched the !at·tic, and ¡found a !ham·mer ¡ly·ing be·¡tween a !sew·ing ma·¡chine and a ¡stuffed !bird. As if in !read·i·ness. (Dark Dance)
Far more often, I found them not separated, with a status similar to the PRE- and POST-MODIFIERS mentioned back in IV.137and IV.144.
[493a] Crawling through the snow they crept up to the fence of dry branches which generally encloses a village in that part of Lithuania (Joseph Conrad)
[493b] She and I devoured their journals, laughing uproariously at the typically 2nd grade-level writing. (Rotten Tomatoes)www
VI.111 A DEPENDENT NON-CLAUSE may have no VERB but a potential SUBJECT that relates to the SUBJECT of the MAJOR CLAUSE, e.g., as a body part [494-95]; or a SUBJECT with an ADVERBIAL, also relating in some such way [496-97].
 She was ¡sit·ting with her “!part·ner” at the ¡end of the !barn, her !eyes !wide, her !thoughts, no ¡doubt, !else·¡where. (Octopus)
 But ¡Li ¡Yuan held !on, his ¡teeth !gritt·ed, his ¡face de·!ter·mined. (Chung Kuo)
 ¡Gen·er·al !Til·ney was ¡pac·ing the !drawing-¡room, his !watch in his !hand (Northanger)
 !Em·me·line would ¡sit and !brood ¡o·ver the ¡child, a ¡troub·led ex·!pres·sion on her !face and a ¡far-a·way !look in her !eyes. (Blue Lagoon)
Describing these PATTERNS as MINOR NON-CLAUSES seems to me preferable to calling them “subjectless clauses” or “verbless clauses”, which sounds to me contradictory, like a “wordless phrase”; or dramatically bloating the concept of “ellipsis” as a mechanism which has “omitted” or “deleted” some “implied” items which “we” — ordinary hearers or grammarians? — “postulate”, “recover”, or “understand”.[Note 18]
VI.112. For my own part, I have essayed to offer some plausible grounds for recognising the category of NON-CLAUSES in the PROSODY and GRAMMAR of English. They are amply attested in authentic data, and are often better adapted to their discursive functions than full MAJOR CLAUSES would be (cf. VI.96). And while they are typical of spoken English, written English provides frequent examples, which should remind us that PROSODY is an essential factor in both media.
Notes to Part Six, Number Four
16. Quirk et al. (Note 3), who do not recognise NON-CLAUSES at all, allow for the NON-FINITES to be “with or without a subject” p. 993), which I find incompatible with the basic definition of the “clause”. As a notable exception, the data-based Longman Grammar (Note 2) recognises “non-clausal units” and their parallel functions to the MAJOR CLAUSES, though under inconsistent labels, e.g., “assertive” versus “declarative”, or “directive” versus “imperative”.
17. Biber et al. (Note 2, p. 1071). NON-CLAUSES made up 38.6%, and CLAUSES 61.4%. But for NON-CLAUSES, the average length was just 1.95 words compared to 7.52 words in CLAUSES.
18. Quirk et al. (Note 4) propose no less than seven variants of “ellipsis” with steadily diminishing assurance — “strict”, “standard”, “situational”, “structural”, “weak”, “virtual”, and “quasi‑” (pp. 889f).
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