Part IV, Number Six
IV.249 Making other WORD-CLASSES function as VERBS is mostly a spontaneous process. By far the most common are NOMINAL VERBS; some retain the NOUN’s meaning, as when animals or drinks become ACTIONS [1145-48]; but indicate emotions [1149-50]; and still others seize upon a form of address or reject the right to have it so used [1151-52].
 Dale Earnhardt Jr tigered his way into third position after coming on strongly in the final 40 laps. (NASCAR Features)WWW
 Susan Sontag swanned through the crowd of intellectual superstars (Henry Allen in The Washington Post)
 On their way to a match against Great Lever, four members of the Accrington team became so “liquored up” when they stopped to take refreshment at Blackburn that they missed their train. (Hooligan)WWW
 I might get beered up and go and poke fun at some peace protesters; if I bother, I’ll post some photos -- otherwise I’ll just get beered up and watch rugby on cable (Australian Blogger Alliance)WWW
 I don't know of nothln’ sadder than that story. Not that I weeps tharat, for I'm a thoughtless an’ a callous yooth, but, all the same, it glooms me up a heap. (Wolfville Days)
 The Chief Weasel began, “Toad he went a-pleasuring gaily down the street--” “I’ll pleasure “em!” [Toad] yelled and went straight for the Chief Weasel. (Wind in the Willows)
 “Brother Walters”, says the preacher, gentlelike and soothing, like a undertaker. “Brother!” Hank yells out, “don’t ye brother me!” [address me as churchgoer]. (Danny’s Own Story)
 Bolingbroke: My gracious uncle! York: Tut, tut! Grace me no grace, nor uncle me no uncle. I am no traitor’s uncle; and that word “grace” in an ungracious mouth is but profane. (Richard II)
Quite uncommon are ADJECTIVAL VERBS, and may well be light-hearted or facetious:
 Mayor Giuliani is admitting the city gooded when it came to alternate side of the street parking rules in Chelsea and Greenwich Village (Newsradio 88)WWW
dreams are badded
sumtimes, I hope I have a good
 If you ask me they should stop uglying Sarah up for her role as Liberty (Live Journal)WWW
 I met a few new people last night at party. Erica got me all “beautifulled” up. (Greatest Journal)WWW
 Feeling her surrender, his mouth gentled on hers. (Winter Challenge)
 They’ve “nastied” the characters too much. Star Trek has always been about the fight between “Good” vs. “Evil”. (wanderingdragon)WWW
ADVERBIAL VERBS are uncommon too:
 “Then I’ll wait in the open air, for I feel half choked”, says he. “I’ll be back before long.” And with that he ups and he outs. (Sherlock Holmes)
 Albert Cheng...aren’tcha just sick o’ him? With his toing and froing, his inning and outing, and all those rancorous foaming public debates (Not the South China Morning Post)WWW
Apparent ADVERBS in PARTICIPLE form are probably just unintentional “attractions” from actual PARTICIPLES in the context:
 I’m onlying saying this because grey has threatened to disown me if I don’t (tJY Community Forums)WWW
 In a few seconds it started moving really slowlying downwards, stopped dead still, then started again. (UFO sighting boards)WWW
IV.250 The really dominant trend has been not VERBALISING other WORD-CLASSES into VERBS, but NOMINALISING VERBS into NOUNS. Why simply “possess” or “receive” [1163-64] when you can garner POWER being the “possessor of” or the “recipient” of” [1165-66]; or, better yet, “in possession of” or “in receipt of” [1167-68]?
 The 1927 Moneylenders Act provided that all moneylenders must possess a license costing £15 (Women in England 1870-1950).
 The princess could receive income from the Duchy of Cornwall which makes about £3 million a year (official leaflet)
 Lagerfeld’s father was Swedish and the possessor of a considerable fortune, made from a dairy company (Harpers & Queen)
 Since April 1989, people in board-and-lodging accommodation have been treated in the same way as most other recipients of income support. (Hansard)
 After 12 years, the law will protect not the real owner but the person in possession of the land (Barsby)WWW
 The flats are available to rent and the outgoings are affordable to those who are in receipt of housing benefit. (Gundreda Housing)WWW
The more plentiful and abstract the NOUNS, the more secure and settled the whole business seems, provided the business itself is a serious one. It is, alas, common enough to “receive a punch in the nose” ; but no one in my data, nor on the Net, has even been either “the recipient of”, or “in receipt of a punch in the nose”.
 Upon arrival, Sgt. Saubier found that, following a brief altercation at the door to the bar, a patron had received a punch in the nose. (Tri-City Record)
“In receipt of” occurs in the BNC almost exclusively for whoever is getting, from an authority, such amenities as “income support”, “research grants”, “mobility allowance”, and a range of bureaucratic “benefits” designated for such purposes as “housing”, “retirement”, “unemployment”, or “sickness”.
IV.251 The border between VERBS and MODIFIERS is rather fluid. Some items with the forms of PRESENT PARTICIPLE or PAST PARTICIPLE can be used as either for an event for something done or done to, as in , ,  or ; or else an attribute to distinguish a familiar, stable type of something, as in , , , or .
 Ruth stood still -- wondering, with only a kind of weariness, at what point she'd determined to return into that burning castle (Adam's Paradise)
 Obviously, a jumping castle is a huge treat for a little one and is not mandatory. (Children's Parties)WWW
 The City remains worried about the impact of the falling pound on inflation (Scotsman)
 “Poor wee Berta. She's had a fit”, said Tina “It's the falling sickness”, said Mrs Keith quietly. (Worlds Apart)
 Drawbacks include some scrambled passages here and there, a false violin entry in the first movement, a recording with distracting low hum, and a bronchial audience. (Gramophone)
 This was a lamentable start to the day. The ham was desiccated, the scrambled eggs congealed, and the fruit juice fermented. (Harpers)
 Emilia's ill-temper spent itself on the domestic staff, and she interpreted his own efforts to placate the ruffled servants as treachery. (Chymical Wedding)
 I would have had the beautiful gown, the ruffled frill and the bejewelled fingers of a lady. (Hypnosis Regression Therapy)
Specialised discourse can be observed creating contrasts between events (or actions) versus non-events, which in turn become MODIFIERS for technical types, viz.:
 The Company also holds interests in three operated PSCs [Malacca Strait, Cumi Cumi and Runtu), and two other non-operated PSCs (Kakap and Madura). (LASMO)WWW
 From discriminant analysis, equations were derived to distinguish raining and non-raining clouds. (Earth Scan Laboratory, LSU)
Apparently, opening the window or stepping out the door to see if it’s raining is insufficiently scientific. Still, a commercial technology for converting clouds to the “non-raining” type could be a huge hit, especially at football matches.
IV.252 EMPOWERING VERBS tend to imply more WEIGHT than EMPOWERING NOUNS. In fact, some at the WEIGHTIEST side, such as “ordain” and “decree”, whether in ACTIVE or PASSIVE, seem reserved for supreme powers, such as the Lord, great potentates, or abstract powers like “fortune”, “fate”, “providence”, and so on.
 Even so hath the Lord ordained that they which preach the gospel should live of the gospel. (I Corinthians 9:14)
 Then spake God to the moon: “I know well, thou wouldst have me make Thee greater than the sun. As a punishment I decree that thou mayest keep but one-sixtieth of thy light.” (Legends of the Jews)
 Fate decreed that the dark prophecy of a demon knight could bring a tragic end to this peace (Dark Secret)WWW
Humans straightfacedly using these verbs in the FIRST PERSON SINGULAR nowadays are hard to imagine. Not even the Ironess Thatcher, steeped in her eagle-winged and sky-aspiring pride and rival-hating envy, could screech:
 *I ordain that the Greater London Council shall be cast into the Thames, till the depths have covered them, and they sink into the bottom as a stone.
 *I decree that burning coals shall fall upon the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament: let them be cast into the fire, that they rise not up again.
The VERB “command”, in olden times hardly less venerable , figures sparely in the BNC of today, except facetiously ; and of course, among the military, where the commanded duties may be surprisingly enjoyable .
 And I commanded the Levites that they should cleanse themselves, and they should come and keep the gates, to sanctify the sabbath day. (Nehemiah 13:22)
 “I not only require total dependence”, he teased, drawing her into his arms against the rumpled linen sheets. “I command you to stay with me forever!” (Calypso’s Island)
 The unit was commanded by Captain Sammy Wenham; like all good Home Guarders, a great deal of effort was made to arrive at our unofficial H.Q., the Five Bells. [a renowned old pub in Hailing, Kent] (Across the Low Meadow)
Less weighty and more flexible VERBS like “require” and “request” carry the weight suited to the context.
 “I have Maria Candida as my servant. Where is she?” “In the laundry, Senhora.” “Then go tell her I require her here in my room.” (Armada)
 In the lawsuit, the tobacco industry requested that Stivoro, the Dutch Foundation on Smoking and Health, be stopped from propagating its position on passive smoking. (Action on Smoking & Health)
 At present I require assistance to help me to choose the most suitable occupation if you can offer any information or guidance (Having It All)
 Mr and Mrs Ramsdale have requested that their generous donation to the hospice be used to buy equipment which will help other families support their own relatives at home. (Northern Echo)
The shirty “Senhora” in  “requires” her “servant” to get up there, or else; the legal poisoners in the tobacco industry in  “requested” the power of the state to suppress the truth by legal force -- pamphlets confiscated, lectures hall locked, invited experts “detained” for “questioning”, that sort of thing. In contrast, the correspondent in  modestly confessed to “requiring assistance” during a painfully weak passage in her life; the couple in  “requested” to help a deeply humanitarian cause.
IV.253 Exercising POWER routinely implies somebody else getting DISEMPOWERED on the other end. However, the social POWER anchored in the GRAMMAR of English has a whole wardrobe of gloves from iron to velvet, mostly deployed by means of AUXILIARIES presented.
 There is a thin line between collaboration and plagiarizing the work of others. Therefore, I require that you must compose your own solution to each assignment. (Scott Anderson)WWW
 I request that you might recommend me and my yoga school to others who may have an interest to go to India (Viswanath)WWW
IV.254 Among DISEMPOWERING VERBS, a whole set is provided for manners of speaking:
 ‘I am no fan of my muscles”, she bleated to a German magazine. “I hate my size.” (Steffi Graf in the Scotsman)
 “Out of my way, you useless lump!” she snarled. (Quest for a Babe)
 “Isn't that lovely! I knew you'd like it!” “What's lovely about it?” snorted the other. “Load of rubbish, that's what this is.” (Twist of Fate)
 She wriggled fruitlessly in his ruthless grasp. “Let me go”, she grated, “or I’ll --” “You’ll what?” rasped Lucenzo (Mask of Deception)
Such VERBS flourish in vintage Mills & Boon like , yet their GRAMMAR mercifully precludes them “framing” indirect discourse (cf. V.76, 80):
[1197a] *Alyssia grated that he should let her go. *Lucenzo rasped what she would do if he didn’t.
VERBS for laughing are similarly loaded, but with a double edge, in so far as the ACTION can also DISEMPOWER its target:
 The razorhead leapt up, but the troopers levelled their guns, so the youth sank back swearing vengeance. A few of the Dorcas gang chortled appreciatively. (Space Marine)
 Some pimpled boy whose name she didn't know put one finger coyly beneath his chin and snickered, “Oh, look, she's blushing.” Jezrael felt her heart swell with her smothered rage. (Brooch of Azure)
 “P'raps not a gambler at the tables, but in other areas, eh Captain?” “Never, ma'am!” She neighed out a laugh. “Come now, Captain.” “You like to joke, ma’am”, said the Captain reddening. (First of Midnight)
 “Where would ye go to, tell me that?” “Back where I came from. Galway.” He guffawed contemptuously. “What, back to that slum in the Claddagh?” (Killing Frost)
IV.255 The social side stands out clearly in ATTITUDES toward VERBS for doing essentially nothing. The EMPOWERING VERBS are AMELIORATIVE when they apply to the powerful away among themselves, notably on upscale “vacations”, even if they don’t otherwise do any real work to “vacate themselves from”, so to speak.
 You and your guests can frolic by picture perfect pools, or relax in the jacuzzi after a long day at the parks. (Emerald Island Escape)
 In your master suite, lie back and relax in the king-size bed, unwind in the warm, bubbling Jacuzzi, or enjoy the warmth of a flickering fire... (Falcon Crest)
 Escapists will revel in the tranquillity of the surroundings which are like a castaway paradise (Citalia Italy)
IV.256 Doing nothing has PEJORATIVE VERBS for people who someone thinks ought to doing real work:
 Your forefathers worked hard, fought hard, and died hard to make this Empire. Don’t let them look down from heaven, and see you loafing about (Hooligan)
 Phone the police if you see anyone whom you regard as suspicious loitering close by or if you suspect a potential intruder is lurking (One’s Company)
 “Do you think they’re all in at school?” “No no, they’re skiving, they’re all wagging off” (BBC Radio Nottingham)BNC
Such nothings can even be cast as betraying the British homeland . Or, they can get you arrested and chucked into jail where you may be forced to do far viler nothings that wardens reassure us never happened . Or again, they can get you punished when you do go back to school, though the famed British custom of flogging and caning on the wotsit have (I hope) passed away .
IV.257 Now and then, the same VERB can be either EMPOWERING or DISEMPOWERING, depending on who’s doing essentially nothing, how, and where, such as “loll” and “repose”:
 How I wish thou couldst see our river-terrace when De Malfort is lolling on the marble balustrade, singing to the guitar which he touches so exquisitely (London Pride)
 I now see my husband lolling in an arm-chair, in a dirty powdering gown, soiled linen, ungartered stockings, and tangled hair. (Wrongs of Woman)
 Everything, I flatter myself, correct and appropriate, and quite picturesque: the company, dispersed in happy groups, or reposing on seraglio ottomans, drinking lemonade and sherbet (Absentee)
 the laborious part of the work fell to the share of the females. […] Their husbands […] were reposing in easy indolence under the shade of the trees, or before the tent fires, giving themselves little concern about anything that was going on. (Canadian Crusoes)
IV.258 As for doing work, some EMPOWERING VERBS I find AMELIORATIVE require guidance from context (and I looked hard to find them), e.g.  and , whereas the DISEMPOWERING VERBS seem mostly PEJORATIVE, e.g.  and , and even without guidance, e.g. [1216-17].
 In 1840 Thomas Wilkins, who was running a successful baking business, took over the mill in the centre of Bourton (Mills of Gloucestershire)
 A husband and wife were convicted yesterday of running a brothel next door to a police social club in Cardiff. (Mirror)
 Nigerian-born John Salako has shown himself capable of performing splendidly at left-back in the latter stages of the 1989-90 season. (Palace Centurions)
 The chauvinistic American Jewish magazine Commentary did succeed in performing the outlandish act of disparaging Primo Levi and his books. (Authors)
 until her marriage to Hywell Gates at the age of twenty-five, she had slaved in other peoples houses for a pittance. (Yanto’s Summer)
 My poor mother had got corns on across her knuckles, from scrubbing and skivvying, up there. (Nottingham Oral History)BNC
I surmise that all these usages stem from ambivalent ATTITUDES toward “work” among the diverging classes of and genders in “modern” societies, where working conditions and wages steadily deteriorate and masses of workers are thrown out their jobs (cf. II.131).
IV.259 Over the centuries, grammarians who expatiated on “pro-nouns” seemed unable to recognise the WORD-CLASS of PRO-VERBS (best written with a hyphen), which substitute for VERBS. They are inconspicuous -- “do”, “have”, and “be” -- because they have two other functions. Either they can appear as or PROCESS VERBS which themselves name the ACTION, EVENT or STATE:
 Great shows he does. Maxwell’s is just about sold out (Evan Dando in NYC)WWW
 Martin's got his fertile pin-up. She's a whizz in the kitchen. Three children they have. (Jay Loves Lucy)
 Carrie's got a nurse ter look after the baby while she works be'ind the counter. Very nice young woman. Irish she is. (Cotton Lane)
Or, they can appear as AUXILIARIES which “help” the PROCESS VERBS indicate their ASPECTS
 “I’m having too much fun for this to be work”, she laughs. But work she does, as is evidenced by the lavish flower arrangements. (Tombigbee Healthcare Authority)WWW
 Nurturing the Republican “base” is an obsession of the Bush presidency. We've mostly ignored how well he's succeeded. But succeeded he has. (Marie Cocco in the Washington Post)
 the Steelers were the team to beat, and defeated they were (USA Today)
IV.260 Or again, they function as PRO-VERBS that stand in for actual VERBS in context, much as PRO-NOUNS stand in for NOUNS:
 Not until 2060 will Earth's neighbors present themselves quite as nicely as they do now. (San Francisco Chronicle)
 To listen to someone is the greatest compliment you can pay. Why? Because it so rarely happens that we all treasure it when it does. (Accountancy)
 I glance around the studio and I realise some of the lads, cameramen and sound technicians have been there as long as I have. (Bruce Hockin)
 A brief analysis of Primal Scream's pop career has also taken place, rounded off by a sure-footed declaration from Craig that “the only respect I have for Bobby Gillespie is that he has been closer to Kylie Minogue’s fanny than I have.” (NME)
 “What is your definition of hospitality?” “Making people feel they are at home when you really wish they were.” (London Talkback Radio)BNC
 Lord Archer gets £6,000 a year out of the pockets of taxpayers who are very much poorer than he is. (Bookseller)
Though certainly no offence against “grammar”, repeating the VERB may be considered out of BALANCE except for emphasis:
 She stumbled away towards the lounge, neither forbidding nor encouraging Charlotte to follow. But follow she did. (Hand in Glove)
 The petit bourgeois were contemptible, and therefore it was easy for governments to squeeze them. And squeezed they were. (Friends in High Places)
Admittedly, repetitions are to be expected from inept, rambling speakers:
 I believe we can figure it out. I believe we have figured it out (Bush State of the Union Address)
 I believe Russia is a European country, and European countries embrace those very same values that America embraces. (Bush in Russia)
PRO-VERBS are typically in the same SENTENCE as the VERB [1224-29], but are common enough in a follow-up SENTENCE [1234-36], and in another speaking turn [1237-39].
 Football hooligans were supposed to terrorize London Transport after dark. Maybe they did. Certainly, it was almost impossible to get a taxi in the City after about 8 p.m. (Angel Touch)
 He bet he hadn't survived the raids. There wouldn't be photos of him if he had. (Jubilee Wood)
 I strongly disagree with the letter that MPs voting for the recent Bill to outlaw fox hunting were not voting against cruelty. Of course they were. (Northern Echo)
 “We just stayed put where we were.” “No, you didn't.” “We did”, insisted Gedanken. “But you didn't. You were in orbit.” (Black Holes)
 “Do you think you'll ever be able to forgive me?” “I already have.” (Battle for Love)
 “You were pining upstairs.” “I wasn't pining!” “Yes you were!” “Oh fiddle.” (conversation)BNC
IV.261 Although technically the VERB is singled out for substitution, the PRO-VERB carries the whole PROCESS, such as “terrorize London Transport after dark” , just as a PRO-NOUN can carry a whole AGENT, such as “they” for “MPs voting for the recent Bill to outlaw fox hunting” .
IV.F.8 VERB PHRASES
IV.262 It’s hard to imagine a “grammar” of English failing to inform the world that “the sentence consists of the noun phrase and the verb phrase”. (Actually, the clause is meant rather than the sentence, but the latter has had tradition strongly in its favour.)[Note 17] The consequence of this “consisting” has normally been to separate and treat the two “phrases” if not independently, at least as two decidedly different sorts of units.
IV.263 The tendency of “grammars” has been to feature the NOUN PHRASE in substantially greater length and detail, simply because its organisation seems more distinct and amenable to traditional categories like ARTICLE and DEMONSTRATIVE; and because these are to some extent mutually fixed in their order. Not so the unruly, protean VERB PHRASE, casting up such perennial puzzles as those floating PREPOSITIONS or ADVERBS that cling to certain VERBS, sometimes strongly, sometimes weakly (cf. V.42-52).
IV.264 My strategy would rather be to assess both main PHRASES as well as their mutual proportions in regard to the factors of BALANCE and WEIGHT I have at times invoked (cf. IV.82, 134, 137, 143ff, 182; xxx). Though intuitively recognised by sensitive, practised native speakers or writers in terms of which options and formations “sound better” (or “look better”), these factors may be described from interactions among several sub-factors.
IV.265 LENGTH is the most amenable to describe, applying as appropriate to either ITEMS or PATTERNS. For example, example, the LENGTHY ADVERB “incontestably” appears rarely between the SUBJECT and the VERB “be”, with “was” at only 54 hits on the Net like , but with after “was” at 1380 hits like .
 Second only to Joe Hill as the IWW’s most popular songwriter, T-Bone Slim incontestably was the Wobblie’s greatest “man of letters.” (Franklin Rosemont)
 Amp Fiddler and his live show was incontestably this year's highlight at the legendary Movement Festival in Detroit. (Anglo Plugging)WWW
Apparently, the link between the SUBJECT and its VERB does not readily allow for LENGTHY distance or postponement.
IV.266 The factor of SALIENCE concerns how much impression or attention some item involves, and applies to ‘incontestably” wherever it is placed. By contrast, the ADVERB “sure” hardly merits notice (especially when insincere anyway) and routinely goes before the VERB . “Surely” is more SALIENT due to more probable sincerity, and in BNC data goes after the VERB “was”, as in , ten times more frequently than before, as in  with SALIENCE aided by the infrequent position.
 He stared with some scorn
at his would-be interviewers.
“Say, that sure was some
book you wrote”, remarked the
reporter, to fill the silence.
“Haven't read it myself yet, bu
 Gemma was surely the most agreeable girl a man could wish for. A good sort and no mistake. Sometimes he could hardly believe his luck. (Song Twice Over)
 Alida did not need her, Alida surely was not afraid to be left alone? (Gentleman and Ladies)
IV.267 The factor of ELABORATION concerns how many components make up a PATTERN. BALANCE hardly permits the ADVERBIAL “without the shadow of a doubt” anywhere but near the FRONT or the END of a CLAUSE [1245-46].
 We have determined that, without the shadow of a doubt, soap was produced using substances obtained from human bodies (National Remembrance Institute, Poland)
 Eddie Colman was a creator, an artist, and would have been one of the game's greats without the shadow of a doubt. (Wilf McGuinness)
In , Paulina Szumera of Poland’s National Remembrance Institute reserved the END for the most SALIENT point about Nazi perfidy. In , Man United Manager McGuinness put the same ADVERBIAL at the END to emphasise the strength of his faith in Coleman, one of the eight team players killed in the 1958 air crash.
IV.268 The FRONT of a CLAUSE is a strategic position for ADVERBS or ADVERBIALS that merit SALIENCE [1247-48] . Ones that do not are mostly VIEWPOINT ADVERBIALS that are not grammatically parts of either NOUN PHRASE or VERB PHRASE, but express the speaker’s outlook or emotion regarding what is being said [1249-50]. These are not hard to distinguish from ordinary ADVERBIALS in the same position [1251-52].
 Desperately, frantically, she waved both arms wildly. But the car had raced past. Wretchedly, Jenny stood on the roadside. (Brownie Stories)
 They are put in prison and labour camps and even killed, because they name Jesus Christ as their Lord and Saviour. Joyfully they endure these hardships (Nathan Wells)WWW
 As a cheeky teenager, Charlie Nicholas earned the nickname the Cannonball Kid. Sadly, Charlie’s arsenal has been dampened and diminished (Independent)
 At Christmas, some fans send two cards to the band. One is for the group and the other is for them to sign and send back. Happily, not all Wedding Present fans are hopelessly in need of affection. (Wedding Present)
 He looked at me with some care. Sadly I followed his eyes, and I too saw what he saw. My snowy cheeks and ruddy lids, the coin-slot of my mouth and its tannic teeth. (Money)
 “I thought you might enjoy some cake”, he said handing over the box and slipping his shoes off.[…]. Happily she allowed him to put the cake on a plate (Dreaming of Sakura)WWW
IV.269 Finally, the factor of COMPATIBILITY concerns expressions being more or less suitable for going together. The ADVERB “stubbornly” is quite COMPATIBLE with VERBS of continuing determined ACTION like “insist”, “persist”, “resist”, and “adhere”, but not so with brief or involuntary ones like “behold”, “sneeze”, or “yawn”.
 Hakim said that he was “rallying against those who are stubbornly persisting in imposing a disastrous situation on our people”. (Keesings)
 ???When his wife stubbornly yawned, the husband just as stubbornly sneezed -- a most indecorous and unsanitary conjugal tete-a-tete. (not authentic)
Multiple ADVERBS or ADVERBIALS in the same VERB PHRASE should also be COMPATIBLE, e.g.  rather than [1247a].
 Gradually, almost imperceptibly, the light strengthened and soon he could make out the shape of boats, [not: ???Gradually, almost instantly…]
[1247a] ?????Desperately, frantically, she waved both arms calmly
IV.270 The organisation of VERB PHRASES being less defined that NOUN PHRASES, the diversity in formation is naturally higher. The SUBJECT is often just a simple PRO-NOUN, e.g., for an AGENT whose identity is already well-known,  or even just as a “dummy” placeholder of form without content . But a simple PROCESS VERB as the entire VERB PHRASE is not very common except for self-contained, significant ACTIONS like “nodding”  or “smiling” .
 She did not remain at Tintagel; to do so would be useless, hopeless. She saw it now. She had hoped against hope (Wife in Name Only)
 It was not in her to wound people's feelings. […] “It was you who were all so kind to me. It was always just like home there to me." (Australia Felix)
 “Seen the Paris news?” asked Lestrade. Holmes nodded. (Adventure of the Second Stain)
 “I have heard of you before. You are Holmes, the meddler." My friend smiled. "Holmes, the busybody!" His smile broadened. (Adventure of The Speckled Band)
Yet many PROCESS VERBS are quite unlikely to stand so alone, e.g., in SENTENCES like “??I cleared.”, “??She perceived.”, or “??They took.” One feels we ought to hear more about it, e.g.:
 I cleared out the building entirely to the walls and built my station of structural ironwork. (Thomas Edison)
 She perceived in the shock of it only a monstrous fatality, a ludicrously wicked chance. (Pool in the Desert)
 They took seats at a table in a rather retired corner, and gazed with interest at the variegated crowd. (Free Rangers)
IV.271 So the factor of BALANCE plainly does not imply that SUBJECT and PREDICATE should have equal WEIGHT. They are designed to perform different modes of “grammatical work”, with the PREDICATE normally carrying a substantially WEIGHTIER load:
 Danny Kyle was funny, irreverent, deeply sensitive, sometimes very hard to get along with, a real human being, and a pleasure to be around. (D.C. Bonaccorsi)WWW
 Meanwhile, during the winter of 1946-7, Kerouac met Neal Cassady, the prototype of his most famous creation, the joyrider Dean Moriarty, the virile Huck Finn of his masterpiece On the Road. (Telegraph)
Yet the BALANCE can be rather sensitive in detail. Why, for instance, is it more satisfying in  than in [1265a]?
 With a little practice you should be able to brew 40 pints of good cheap beer in less than three hours’ work. (CAMRA)BNC
[1265a] In less than three hours’ work you should be able to brew 40 pints of good cheap beer with a little practice.
I would say that the COMPATIBILITY between the large amount and the short time invested is more persuasive than requirement of “little practice”. Theoretically, a fanatic beer-maker who drank his ready beer while he brewed the next batch would always be well ahead; I doubt anyone could drink 40 pints in three hours, though a fellow student of mine in Heidelberg, so I heard, got through 36 pints in a single night; and I see from the Net that on 22 June 1977, Steven Petrosino of Carlise, Pennsylvania, is claimed to have drunk a litre of beer in an incredible 1.3 seconds -- the Guinness World Record.
Ironically, Guinness removed all records for beer drinking from their record book in 1991, leaving the capacious Steven the all time champ.
IV.272 English grammar books have felt most comfortable when the PREDICATE contains a FINITE AGREEING VERB, either a PROCESS VERB  or its AUXILIARY .
 Ludo strikes a match, turns on the gas, and holds the flame to it. (Payback)
 BBC Books has struck a lucrative lode with tie-ins to its estimable television series Gardeners World (Bookseller)
They also all approve the sturdy DIRECT OBJECT which they like to name the “object of the action”, as clearly fits data like [1268-69], and to disregard the data which neither of the terms in this name readily fit, e.g. [1270-71].
 Vampires Stole My Lunch Money (Mick Farren)
 The wicked Dr Mamuk has stolen the secret plans for a virtual reality chamber (Mirror)
 Most of all, they guessed the implications of replacing their cottages with flats in housing-blocks. (Nicolae and Elena Ceausescu)
 I felt the miserable decline of my happiness as I imagined the girl's innocence and the futility of her mother's efforts to save her (Amnesty)
IV.273 Less consistent attention has been accorded to the relatively few VERBS that can elaborate the DIRECT OBJECT with an OBJECT COMPLEMENT, which is usually either a MODIFIER  or another NOUN PHRASE .
 The new paradigm presented by the war on terror renders obsolete Geneva’s strict limitations on questioning of enemy prisoners and renders quaint some of its provisions. (memo from “Attorney General” Gonzales to “President” Bush)
 Sir Bob Geldof would consider accepting a peerage if offered to him. The BBC Radio 4 listeners voted him the British citizen most deserving of being made a Lord. (ContactMusic News)WWW
IV.274 Less consistent too has been the handling of the so-called “intransitive” VERB PHRASES, since the traditional term merely defines them by what they are not -- essentially, not taking an “object being acted upon” (cf. IV.213, 231). I have proposed to called them MEDIAL, on the grounds that the SUBJECT is (so to speak) the MEDIUM of what is being stated (IV.231). A limited range of VERBS can follow up with a SUBJECT COMPLEMENT, usually a MODIFIER [1274-76] and less often a NOUN PHRASE [1277-79]. These may for instance render EVALUATIONS of the SUBJECT MEDIUM:
 Neal Cassady was infamous for his unstoppable energy and his overwhelming charm (Editorial review at Amazon)WWW
 Mariah Carey looked unspeakably gorgeous in a bare-midriff top (Swim Club)WWW
 Carter sounded marvellous with their groovy soul and the sweet tones of singer Samantha Carter. (BBC Berkshire)
 I am a simple-minded, child-like, insipid sort of moronic and awkward feeling adolescent. (Neal Cassady)
 The eight-time Wimbledon champion lost the first set as the Czechoslovak brought her down with her huge serve and Navratilova looked a bag of nerves. (Independent)
 She doubted if Williams were a major player -- even on the telephone, he sounded a loser (Stone Cold)
 The charging restless mute unvoiced road keening in a seizure of tarpaulin power. (Kerouac’s own favourite sentence in On the Road)
 Two piercing eyes glancing into two piercing eyes -- the holy con-man with the shining mind, and the sorrowful poetic con-man with the dark mind. (Kerouac on the meeting of Allen Ginsberg and Neal Cassady)
 Window curtains of starched cheap lace revealing a pink marble table with a conch shell and a Family Bible. (Main Street)
 A wall rubbed black and scattered with official notices and army recruiting-posters. (same)
These data might invoke some cautiously taciturn and hovering BALANCE, which full and regular AGREEMENT might weigh down.
IV.275 NON-FINITE VERBS may share the same SUBJECT as a nearby FINITE CLAUSE, though the conventional name for the PATTERN has been “modifiers” [1284-85]. Grammar teachers can have a triumphant field day when the SUBJECT is not so shared -- the infamous “dangling modifier” [1286-87].
 Amazed at this sudden indifference, I turned all hands out on shore to hunt (Joseph Conrad)
 Finding a proper place to lay the sloop on shore, Mr. Flinders took the necessary measures; and having completely stopped the leak, he re-stowed his vessel (English Colony in New South Wales)
 A huge pink banner was held up, although continually threatening arrest, and asking the crowd to move to Trafalgar Square. (Indymedia London)WWW
 Upon examining the wreck, the engine had shot backwards into the cockpit. (FlyPast)
The effect may be gauche  or even grotesque , but there is rarely any real doubt about what is being said.
IV.276 As we shall see in detail in Part V on the LEXICOGRAMMAR of English, the organisation of VERB PHRASES decisively reflects the nature of the PROCESS expressed by the CLAUSE as a whole. More delicate descriptions and distinctions come into reach, e.g. for data like [1288-91].
 He swallowed the last of his lager and contemplated his empty glass. (Waters of Eden)
 “Don't worry, everything will be all right.” Kate swallowed the trite remark. He was only trying to make her feel better. (Ladykiller)
 A day came when Mauve lectured at him, “as the worst teacher at the academy would not have spoken.” He swallowed his pride and kept quiet (Van Gogh)
 “For too long the international community has swallowed the Serb propaganda line”, said Zvonko Lerotic, an advisor to Croatia's president, Franjo Tudjman. (Economist)
All have the SUBJECT – VERB – OBJECT format with the same VERB, but each represents its own type of PROCESS: ingesting a liquid , unwillingly accepting empty talk , repressing self-esteem , and credulously believing . The next Part offers a framework of terms and concepts for sorting out such PROCESSES and observing how they affect the usages of GRAMMAR and LEXICON.
IV.F.9 ADVERBS and ADVERBIALS
IV.277 As the last of the four MAJOR WORD-CLASSES presented here, the ADVERBS would be the smallest in size according to the traditional description: a readily identified one-word MODIFIER of a VERB, preferably with the ENDING “‑ly” joined to a readily identified ADJECTIVE, as in “slow + ly”:
 Their progress was slow. (Mariner of St Malo)
 The work proceeded slowly. (George Borrow)
Traditional grammar has used the same term for the MODIFIER of a MODIFIER, mainly an ADJECTIVE  or a PARTICIPLE .
 He was plainly dressed in a dark grey suit. His eyes were deeper sunken under the strongly marked brows. (London Pride)
 It was blazing hot outside and smothering hot inside the weather-board and iron shanty at Dead Dingo. (Joe Wilson and His Mates)
No doubt the more logical term AD-ADJECTIVE is too stuttery to prevail; AD-MODIFIER might fare better, but I doubt it could overcome the inertia sustaining the illogical older term.
IV.278 The characteristic ENDING “‑ly” is quite a standby, having been with us in various sounds or forms ever since Old English; but its history has been chequered, and its prospects are none too bright today, due to a range of problems. The simplest problem is the unattractive combination of sounds “‑lily” resulting from an ADJECTIVE that already ended in “‑ly”, which is therefore happily unpopular:
 I thought he said beautifully what I’ve been saying uglily (Athletics Nation)WWW
 the elder ladies talked themselves into a decision to ask the young woman to luncheon, and tell her, very friendlily, how such behaviour appeared to women like themselves, who knew the world. (Night and Day)
 I was quite taken aback, and before I could find myself had sillily stammered, “I -- I am a gentleman”. (Sea Wolf)
 He has all the helpful tips on how to shave your manly legs manlily. (Chaos Central)WWW
IV.279 Another fairly simple problem is the imbalance where just one of a pair of plainly matched ADVERBS gets the ENDING: some users of regional or non-native Englishes figure the other should too [1300-05]. On rare occasions, both sides are newly furnished .
 The shortly awaited follow up is to the scorching Mat Young Solo 7 (phonographique)WWW
 The longly awaited fight went down today. (boxingscene)WWW
 She drove slowly and carefully, her anxious eyes peering ahead (Devices and Desires)
 He drove fastly and reached the bus and stopped in front of it (MIXMIND)WWW
 Surface waters in contact with melting ice are thinly populated with zooplankton. (Polar Ecology)
 Dissolute bluebottles stun themselves against clear windowpanes and die fatly baffled in the sun. (God of Small Things)WWW
 Power does not change, the line is chartered too bigly or smallly to change (Chengdu Tongda Relay Manufacturing, China)WWW
IV.280 A widespread recourse, above all in regional English, is to disregard the ENDING and use the same form for the ADVERB as the ADJECTIVE would have, e.g.:
 It gave me a terrible nice surprise when that bicicle came yesterday (Bobby J.)WWW
 One mornin’, a old buck comes trailin’ into the store, an’ he’s pantin’ an’ givin’ it out he’s powerful ill. (Wolfville Days)
 He certainly was wonderful clever when there was any devilment to be carried out (Robbery Under Arms)
 Point is, we seem awful eager to spend money to destroy things and then turn around and say “not our problem, too expensive” when time comes to clean up. (Warriors World)WWW
Take it from me: if you had to explain an auto collision to the Sheriff of a rural town in Florida, you’d fare better in the ears of the law to say “I was drivin’ real slow” than “I was driving really slowly”.
IV.281 To jolly up the “grammar” a bit more, we have pairs where the ADVERB with the “‑ly” ENDING has uses you certainly couldn’t predict from the ADJECTIVE. One assumes that these “books” in themselves are not “pretty” or “fair” ; and that the Savoy’s savvy golfers hope they will not be whacking their balls in the “rough” .
 many books about the cinema published today are pretty inaccurate and fairly useless (Guardian)
 The Savoy Hotel company is buying three of the 40 units in the golf and country club in a deal worth roughly £2.4m. (Independent)
‘Feeling poorly” is a sensation of illness ; “feeling poor” is a sensation of poverty .
 Ratch got me a card, and he looked after me because I felt poorly with a cold. (Valentines Day)WWW
 We were eating tripe, cutting back on hospitality, buying only what was necessary, and I felt poor. (Christian Science Monitor)
IV.282 As we will see again in IV.290, many ADVERBIALS such as TIME and PLACE assume the format of PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES, which and context decides what belongs to the ADVERB [1315-16] or else to the VERB [1317-18].
 Instead, she looked up the mountainside and focused on the long, winding line of torches (Scott Elrond LeBlanc)WWW
 When Haney went to make the catch, the ball was knocked up in the air by the Wildcat defender. (Indiana Daily Student)
 To track her down, Lovett got a Laramie phone book and looked up the police department (Sylva Herald)
 he felt a pang of incongruity when he was knocked up at daybreak and told that Sir Aaron Armstrong had been murdered. (Father Brown)
IV.283 Some ADVERBIALS resemble the DIRECT OBJECTS of ACTIVES, but this impression is cancelled if PASSIVES are attempted:
 This so-called reunion lasted two weeks (Adoption)WWW
[1319a] ???Two weeks were lasted by this so-called reunion
 The race ran all twenty five laps, something that doesn’t happen very often. (Racing Results)WWW
[1320a] ???All twenty five laps were run by the race
 It sounded like someone rapping on my window. I live in LA, it’s 1:15 a.m., and my guts jumped a foot in the air. (Colin Campbell)WWW
[1321a] ????a foot in the air was jumped by my guts
Some short common combinations of ADVERBIAL before VERB are not so simple as they appear. “There goes” can apply when something is actually seen moving away ; or something has been lost ; or it may be either .
 “There goes the shawl again!” The brooch had come undone as she spoke, and a sudden gust of wind blew the Queen’s shawl across a little brook. (Alice)
 One shell hit the Artillery Group Headquarters I saw all his office papers going up, a cloud of shreds, shining in the sun. I laughed and said to myself, “There goes a lot of red tape!” (Three Soldiers)
 There goes my baby, moving on down the line; wonder where she is bound. I broke her heart and made her cry, now I’m alone (Drifters)
“Here comes” can apply when someone is actually seen arriving ; or something is presented as an idea or object of thought ; or it may be undecided .
 “Here comes Sarge.” Everybody craned their necks in the direction pointed out. The sergeant strolled up with a mysterious smile on his face. (Three Soldiers)
 Here comes such a subtile and ineffable quality, for instance, as truth or justice, though the slightest amount or new variety of it, along the road. (Walden)
 Here comes the rain again, falling on my head like a tragedy, tearing me apart like a new emotion (Eurythmics)
In the exquisitely moody video filmed on the Orkney Islands, the “rain” does “come” -- even slap through the roof of the house -- but “tearing people apart” is not the behaviour of normal precipitation. Something or someone else comes with it, drawing Annie Lennox out to search in the darkness with a lantern while she talks about “diving into your ocean” to a man who may or may not be the spectral cameraman Dave Stewart.
IV.284 More elaborate ADVERBIALS of PLACE before their VERB are most favoured for ACTIONS and EVENTS involving motion, e.g.:
 Into the lunch room he stalked and deposited twenty cents upon the counter. (Winesburg, Ohio)
 Down the hill he ran, slipping, skating, pitching, till he struck the bottom, then up the opposite slope he struggled (Corporal Cameron)
 Laying a finger aside of his nose, up the chimney he rose (Night before Christmas)
 Over the river and through the woods to grandmother’s house we go (traditional)
I have been unable to locate decidedly different combinations, such as:
 ?Into a long speech the candidate plunged.
 ?Down the alphabet the headmaster read.
 ?Up the scale her salary rose.
 ?Over the limit went his alcohol blood level.
The are not ungrammatical but rather out of BALANCE.
IV.285 As with ADJECTIVES though less plentifully, ATTITUDES are effectively represented. Here too, piling up can yield WEIGHTY effects:
 And meekly, softly, beautifully, dawned at last the light over the trembling deep! (Pompeii)
 The defendant falsely, unlawfully, unjustly, wickedly, devilishly, [...] impurely, and scandalously [...] did carry off the aforesaid Mrs. Angela (London Pride)
Such usages too are of course not “ungrammatical”, but they are problematic if they ruin the effect by reaching too strenuously. I find Bulwer-Lytton’s turgid novel, of which  is but a mild sample, frankly embarrassing, like some monstrous half-baked cake frosted and decorated many times over. And the court was not impressed by the heaped-up vituperations in the indictment in , and we learn from herself that the lady “went willingly because she loved him”.
IV.286 EMPOWERING and DISEMPOWERING ADVERBS indirectly but forcefully reflect credit or censure upon the AGENTS of the ACTIONS:
 An appeal was made by a powerful friend of Quebec, [Governor General] Lord Dufferin, to our gracious Sovereign, who contributed munificently from her private purse for the erection of the new gate (Picturesque Québec)
 Mary [Queen of Scots] was some six feet tall, towering majestically over most men. […] She loved to dress in vivid colours, garnished with necklaces, bracelets, rings and other glittering jewellery. (Traveller’s History of Scotland)
 “You see”, said he, pitifully, “I’ve been walking the streets almost day and night these two weeks and can’t get work.” (Darkest England)
 If the Government was serious about regaining the initiative it has so wretchedly lost, the Prime Minister would sanction the Chancellor to announce that Britain is seeking to join the ERM at the earliest practical moment. (Independent)
IV.287 Some uncertainties may arise between ADVERBS and ADJECTIVES from the MEDIALS, where somebody or something is the “medium” of what happens, perhaps due to the foggy way the “intransitive” has traditionally been handled (cf. IV.213, 231). A MEDIAL VERB like “feel” in the sense of “have a mental or “physical sensation” is typically followed by a SUBJECT COMPLEMENT, such as an ADJECTIVE. You “feel good” if you’re contented or happy ; you “feel well” if you are healthy . The logical opposites would be to “feel bad” and “feel sick” [1344-45]. “Badly” and “sickly” do occur [1346-47], but are still ADJECTIVES, usually meaning “inclined to feel bad or sick”.
 It was a lovely landscape. It was idyllic, poetical, and it inspired me. I felt good and noble. (Three Men in a Boat)
 That was followed by glandular fever [and ] it was the next January before I felt well again. (Scotsman)
 He looked sheepish and troubled, staring down, and his shoulders bent. He certainly felt bad. (Belted Seas)
 His head ached and he felt sick […] for he had taken some kind of fever. (North Wind)
 “It would suit me all right”, said Carrie, who, nevertheless, felt badly; talk of a smaller flat sounded like poverty. (Sister Carrie)
 I felt sickly occasionally but I felt really happy throughout my pregnancy (Falling for Love)
Yet the dominant PATTERN of ACTIVE VERB plus ADVERB may encourage some usages of apparent ADVERBS with MEDIALS:
 “Will you stay here forever, or you have to come back?” I asked, feeling oddly at a moment and sad (In the Crystal Castle)WWW
 The hospital smelled strangely. (Candy)WWW
Since, as you’ve noticed, I am cautious with the overused term “errors”, I would describe such as usages as “inconsistent within the GRAMMAR”, and, in any case, pertaining to fairly subtle distinctions.
IV.288 One elusive subtlety detected in my data suggests that where two forms co-exist, the one with the “‑ly” ENDING entails some INTENTION of the AGENT, whereas the one with no ENDING suggests how the ACTION is perceived, especially as something usual or typical for the AGENT. In , the “trumpet sounded loudly” to summon the “combatants” to form their “stern array” and to alert the crowd of observers for a gladiatorial ding-dong; in , the “loud sound” of the fountain impressed the soldier Fuselli, set against the general “silence” of the “town”. In , the heroine has been called into her house and leaves the hero most reluctantly; in , the speaker wanted to make sure that a small child got an urgent message to the “detective”; but in , the “guide” acted like that just because he was a “boring” old codger through and through.
 The trumpet sounded loudly. The combatants stood in stern array. (Pompeii)
 The streets of the town were silent under the pale moon. In the square the fountain sounded loud (Three Soldiers)
 She looked up at me for a moment then turned away from me, opening the gate. She walked slowly up the path to her house, looked back at me, and then finally walked inside. (How We Broke Up)WWW
 “Ok, Kevin, could you tell Amanda I called her and have her call me back?” Mitch talked slowly to make sure Kevin understood. (Detective Amanda Ellis)WWW
 our tour guide was so so so boring, he talked slow he walked slow he did everything slow. (Mantha at Greatest Journal)WWW
Similarly, the Israeli driver in  wanted to show off to the “driving instructor” how attentively he “looked” out for traffic; the “choir” in  was aiming for a “sound” to “create” a specific “atmosphere”; and Ms. Bush in  imagined that tarting up and talking sweet would prettify the bloodstained image of her warmongering husby.
 I started the engine, looked nicely in the mirrors, signalled to the left and moved. Behind me I left my driving instructor, wishing me all the luck. (Yariv Habot)
 The choirs sounded nicely and they managed to create the exciting-worrying atmosphere of the theatre (José Cura fan club)WWW
 She looked nice, Laura Bush, touring the Dome of the Rock, smiling sweetly at the protesters outside. She sounded nice, too, in her keynote speech at the Dead Sea in Jordan. (Washington Post)
Or again, those “waitresses” in  wanted to prod the diners into tipping them more; though their method lacked subtlety, they wouldn’t use it unless it worked sometimes, even in a country where ordinary citizens are financially bushed. In , Bobby and Suzy were a “nasty set of siblings” who raised such a racket in the forest that the wind swallowed them up, so they can only “whisper” now.
 It’s shocking how rude their waitresses are! They sat next to our table while we were dining, talking loudly about how some customers tip them more than others (citysearch)WWW
 Everything they did was loud. They talked loud, ate loud, played loud (windwhispers)WWW
The “people in  talked lowly” because the spectacle embarrassed and frightened them; but “talking low” on your CB radio  is a wise habit if you might look and sound suspicious parked in the dark, especially if you’ve been eavesdropping on the fuzz as they cruise about hoping for “offenders” to bust.
 I kneeled in the middle of two streets and reached up and screamed her name to the sky while blood was flowing down through the back of my fingers. […] People slowed down and looked at me strangely and talked lowly to their friends (Park J. Stevens)WWW
 We usually talked low on the CB because we had the car windows down and the lights blacked out (CB Radio)WWW
I have presented this much data because I have not seen this tendency mentioned in any “grammar”, nor was I explicitly aware of it until now. Self-conscious users of “more formal” English are likely to avoid the shorter forms in any case.
IV.289 In return, some varieties of English absolutely demand certain ADVERBS in the form of ADJECTIVES in specific usages. One arena you’ll hear them is in US “country music”:
 Well you tell me that you care
But now you’re gone, you’ve got me cryin’
No use denyin’ you done me wrong (George Jones)
 Well I met a man down in Hollywood, now I ain’t namin’ names.
He really worked me over good, just like Jesse James (Linda Ronstadt)
A lotta “country music” is powerful tear-jerkin’ stuff -- Linda’s song is even titled Poor Poor Pitiful Me, so y’all gits the drift right off and hollers fer the Kleenex. The underlined usages are key signals in a discourse of lovers telling us how bad they got dumped on (abused) or plain dumped (kicked out). In these contexts, both “wrong” (not “wrongly’!) and “good” (not “well’!) point toward “cruel and deceitful”; compare this transposed “good” with the curious drift of “bad” in IV.187f.
IV.290 ADVERBS in the narrow sense share a great deal of “grammatical work” in the VERB PHRASES of real discourse with ADVERBIALS, that is, PATTERNS that perform similar functions but are more elaborated in form, mostly as PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES toward the end of the VERB PHRASE (cf. IV.282). They mainly “modify” as “circumstances”, several of which are recognisable in the usual grammar books. Their familiar terms for SUB-CLASSES can be made most tangible if the functions are named: TIME , PLACE , MEANS , and MANNER .
 The Crown relied on the test results to prove that the accused’s blood alcohol level at the time of the alleged offence was over .08 (Court of Appeal for Ontario)WWW
 Unless a law states otherwise, a free kick is awarded at the place of infringement (Ohio Rugby Union)WWW
 Pheasant may not be hunted by means of a cable, chain, or rope connected to or between moving objects. (Texas Parks and Wildlife)WWW
 He lay on the sofa, whispering his sorrowful lamentations in the manner of religious ecstasies. (Bedside Manners)WWW
However, such explicitness appears mainly in official discourse. Far more often, such SUB-CLASSES are determined in context, e.g., as being TIME  or PLACE .
 In the middle of the night there was a great scream, like a screech owl, and a loud crashing sound. (Carrie’s War)
 Tupac Amaru Shakur was born in the East Harlem section of Manhattan in New York City, where his mother Afeni was an active member of the Black Panther Party (Dance Agen)WWW
IV.291 Like MODIFIERS in NOUN PHRASES, the usages of ADVERBS and ADVERBIALS in VERB PHRASES is influenced by BALANCE (cf. IV.264ff). A short, common ADVERB can equally well go before a PRO-NOUN SUBJECT as in [1370-71]; or between the SUBJECT and VERB, especially when the position before is occupied by another ADVERBIAL [1372-73]. But the position between is uncommon for a longer, weightier ADVERBIAL, as in “more formal” discourse [1374-75].
 Suddenly he crouched as a cry broke the stillness and another cry answered it. (Killing Frost)
 She began to understand that her working clothes had to cope the intrusion of photographers and her ever-present enemy, the wind. Slowly she discovered tricks of the trade such as weighting her hems so that they didn't blow up in the wind. (Diana)
 About two yards from the sea he suddenly stopped and jumped round to face us (Invasion)
 Through her daze she slowly became aware of the sergeant's voice. (Best)
 Jonathan Motzfeld remains prime minister until 1991 when he after a scandal vacates the premiership (
 The intermediate appellate court found no evidence that the teacher suffered any wage loss because she, during the summer recess, was not absent from her position (Ohio Bureau of Workers’ Compensation)
An ADVERBIAL placed before the SUBJECT normally applies to the all PROCESSES expressed in the PREDICATE. During the TIME specified in , “calling”, “declaring”, and “forfeiting” all occurred; at the PLACE specified in , “compelling”, “breaking, and “demolishing”.
 During the twenty years following the issue of the decree of 1711 the intendant was called upon to declare the forfeiture of over two hundred farms (Seigneurs of Old Canada)
 Throughout all Russia the princes were compelled to break down the walls of their cities and to demolish their fortifications. (Empire of Russia)
IV.292 However, the preferred position is after the VERB if the ADVERBIAL is closely dependent on the latter, especially if it is also LENGTHY and WEIGHTY.
 If a mother shall teach her children to read, the law in Louisiana proclaims that she may be hanged by the neck. If the father attempt to give his son a knowledge of letters, he may be punished by the whip. Three millions of people shut out from the light of knowledge! […] I am bound by the prayers, and tears, and entreaties of three millions of kneeling bondsmen [to] expose slavery. (Frederick Douglass, 1846)
 This momentous decree came as a great beacon light of hope to millions of Negro slaves who had been seared in the flames of withering injustice. […] . One hundred years later, the Negro lives on a lonely island of poverty in the midst of a vast ocean of material prosperity. (Martin Luther King, Jr., 1973)
These data from towering orators aptly illustrate the often metaphoric functions of ADVERBIALS in constructing scenarios of social POWER. Slavery is an “institution” that is painful to confront (at least for me) in literal terms, e.g.:
 Gibbs flew into a violent passion, tied the negro to a stake, and cut his back to mincemeat. He burnt his legs to a blister with hot embers [etc] (Anti-Slavery Examiner)
We can readily notice (though schoolroom “grammars” don’t) how many details of slaveholder bestiality are specified by ADVERBIALS.
IV.F.9.1 PRO-ADVERBS and PRO-ADVERBIALS
IV.293 Here again, I need terms and WORD-CLASSES that are not traditionally recognised. The PRO-ADVERBS correspond to the PRO-ADJECTIVES and like them, are not represented by a consistent set of forms (cf. IV.191). The clearest instances are usages of “so” to substitute for some previously expressed ADVERB or ADVERBIAL, viz.:
 The health service is financed almost entirely by the taxpayer and will remain so. (Ministers Decide)
 Tommy, with true brotherly sympathy, was amusing himself by turning Dolly's skirt over her bald head. “You shanna have a morsel o’ cake if you behave so.” (Adam Bede)
However, indisputable examples are not plentiful. More often, longer expressions serve:
 “My mind is buzzing with ideas, I can't get them knitted fast enough” she told me. My mind does not buzz that way. (Machine Knitting Monthly)
 I need to move slowly across from the left. Except that I cannot work like that. (Big Glass)
 One young girl of 14 was entrapped by marked money being found in her toilet table. The court records showed that this was the second time she had been entrapped in this manner (Heathen Slaves and Christian Rulers)
 The way they were managed was in this fashion. A general manager for each festival was elected by lot every year in the vestry of the church (Amazonas)
Actually, most PRO-ADVERBS and PRO-ADVERBIALS substitute for the whole PROCESS, especially the VERB. Since much the same can be achieved with PRO-VERBS (cf. IV.261), PRO-ADVERBS are the most marginal of the four sets of PRO-FORMS accompanying the four MAJOR WORD-CLASSES; but on grounds of consistency, it deserves to be recognised.
Notes to Part IV, NUMBER 6
18. For a detailed account, see my “Sentence first, verdict afterwards: On the long career of the sentence”, in WORD 50, 1999, 1-31.
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