V.31 The INNER PROCESSES differ substantially in their LEXICOGRAMMAR from the OUTER PROCESSES. As we shall see, some carry along pairs, one side with greater INTENTION or CONTROL, e.g., “looking” or “finding out”, versus one side with lesser, e.g., “seeing” or “thinking”.
V.32 PERCEPTIONS are sensory ACTIONS whose PROTOTYPE CLAUSE CORE has “PERCEIVER” as SUBJECT, “PERCEPTION” as VERB PHRASE, and “PERCEIVED” as OBJECT. The key functions are to represent the proverbial “five senses”, though the LEXICOGRAMMAR accords them sharply unequal frequencies. “Sight” ranks the highest, and “hearing” rather lower, and the other three quite low. For a rough test, the basic VERB forms in the BNC are: “see” at 115,100, “hear” at 13,079, “touch” at 2431, “smell” at 1108, and “taste” at 672. However, these differences are partly due to expanded meanings, like “see” for “understand”.
V.33 When the factors of INTENTION or CONTROL do not apply, the PROTOTYPES for sight and hearing are of course the basic “seeing” and “hearing” [159-60]; and where those factors do apply, the PROTOTYPES could be “watching” and “listening to” [161-62].
 Outside my house I saw a rattlesnake (George Clooney)
 One day while poor Kwan-yin was picking up brushwood in the forest she heard a tiger making his way through the bushes (Chinese Wonder Book)WWW
Remmie yelled into the vortex as
he watched the hurricane
 We stood on the porch of our bungalow and listened to the frogs and the crickets (Cynthia Gorney)WWW
NEGATIVES with FIRST PERSON or SECOND PERSON PRO-NOUNS as the SUBJECT can signify that some PROCESS is not “seen” or “heard” just because it is IMPROBABLE [163-66].
 ... "So intelligence-wise, I don't see anything driving the insurgency up and I certainly don't see it growing at this point. (Lieutenant General John Vines, the number two US commander in Iraq, June 2005)
 I still get an occasional chance to hear Blue Mitchell. But I don't hear any young guys that impress me at all (Woody Shaw)WWW
 The only manager that deserves to be called a real man is Rafa Benitez. You don't see him resorting to childish antics in the media (
 When you walk away, you don’t hear me say please “Oh baby, don’t go” (Utada Hikaru)
V.34 Another well-attested PROTOTYPE for the sense of sight, implying less INTENTION and CONTROL than “watching” but more than “seeing”, is “looking at”. The latter tends, more than those two VERBS, to convey a further INTENTION, such as COGNITION  or EMOTION ; or to assume expanded meanings like “consider”  or “inspect” . The same VERB has a MEDIAL SUBJECT as DEVELOPER in DEVELOPMENTS like “looking healthy”  or “looking younger” ; or a SUBJECT in the function of a perceived AFFECTED of some DISPOSITIVE [173-174]. The COLLIGATION “look like” carries mainly PEJORATIVE ATTITUDES, as in [175-76].
 She looked at him earnestly, wanting to re-establish understanding. (First of Midnight)
 They looked at each other quizzically, trying to decide how much emotion the other was prepared to invest (Three Times Table)
 The clubs looked at the situation and felt it was time to change. (Clive Rowlands)BNC
 The Football Association will look into Leeds United's claims that Chelsea made illegal approaches to three of the Championship side's young players, when they receive a formal complaint.
 Wright said, that Jackson looked healthy, as you you would expect Michael Jackson would. (Jackson Visits Irish Bookstore)WWW
 Of a total of 7,300 women polled, 65% said they looked younger than their age (CareFare)WWW
 Monty looked disappointed with his performance despite still being in sight of the leaders. (BBC Sport)
 Rooney then got the third goal at 55 minutes and the Latics fans looked defeated. (same)
 Don't be put off by J.B. Priestley's description of Brummie men looking like lopsided oafs, gnomes, hobgoblins. (Birmingham Magazine)
 Glen Johnson looked like a fish out of water in the centre of defence. (BBC Sport)
V.35 For the sense of hearing, a MEDIAL similar to “looking” is “sounding”, e.g. [177-78]. “Sounding like” is popular, also mainly PEJORATIVE, e.g. [179-80].
 When Telly Chakkar spoke last with Kuljeet a few days ago, she sounded cheerful about the fact that Kohinoor was being a repeat telecast (Indian Television)
 Richard O'Kelly sounded delighted after Saturday's unexpected point at Oakwell against Barnsley. (Paul Williams)WWW
 On their debut album Slanted and Enchanted, Pavement sounded like the biggest slackers in the world. (Dave Heaton)WWW
 Pentagon network engineer Tom Seibert said he heard what “sounded like a missile” crash into the building. (Guardian)
V.36 ERGATIVE PERCEPTIVES occur for sight and hearing. The common meaning is like “cause” or “compel” for “watch”  and “listen” ; “enable” for “see”  and “hear” ; and “lend an appearance” for “look” .
 Lock people in a room and make them watch Dude, Where's My Car until they pay a release fee, or their brain melts (Guy Incognito)WWW
 Stenhousemuir manager Des McKeown was furious with his players after the 3-2 defeat at Arbroath and made them listen to their opponents singing in the changing room at full-time. (Scotsman)
 Her reporting from all over her native country made her see it in what many regarded as an unfairly bleak light. Mr Putin’s regime was utterly brutal and corrupt, she would say in her soft, matter-of-fact voice. (Economist)
 He sinks back into the chair, still covering and uncovering his ears, trying to make himself hear the noises (Annotated Martian)WWW
 She had wasted no time in dressing the part; flowing robes with glitter-black wings that made her look like an outsize bat (A Mad Queen)WWW
V.37 The other senses for PERCEPTIONS, as indicated by the BNC frequencies in V.31, are far less favoured, and less prone to assume expanded meanings. The PROTOTYPE “touching” in its basic usage is mostly ACTIVE with a human AGENT or a human body part as SUBJECT [186-87]; non-humans can figure in the ACTIVE , or the MEDIAL . The NEGATIVE can mean absolute remoteness from something . The PASSIVE is mostly for making someone feel a kindly EMOTION .
 Susan touched the man’s shoulder. The fabric of his jerkin was rough (Nudists)
 His fingers touched hers and his heart gave a jolt (Latchkey Kid)
 As the boat touched the far bank, the leopardess stepped ashore (Kingdoms East)
 Suddenly, catastrophe struck. The plane touched down, bounced up again, slewed sideways and skidded along the runway, breaking up as it did so (Ayrshire Heritage)
 Kenneth Clarke has brought the issue of hard drug use into the Conservative leadership race, by declaring, “I've never touched cocaine”. (Scotsman)
[background: Boy George]
 Film-maker Roman Polanski says he is “deeply touched” to be chosen to receive the best director Oscar for The Pianist. (BBC News)
The ERGATIVE of “making touch” can narrow  or expand :
 A Japanese policeman claims the devil made him touch a woman (Ananova)www
 Failure made Jackie touch rock bottom (India Info)www
V.38 The PROTOTYPE of “smelling” is more inclined than “seeing”, “hearing”, or “touching” to imply an ATTITUDE. Like “looking”, it occurs in ACTIVE with PERCEIVER as SUBJECT [194-195], or MEDIAL with PERCEIVED as SUBJECT [196-97], and with either AMELIORATIVE or PEJORATIVE ATTITUDE; PASSIVES like [198-99] are infrequent. PEJORATIVE dominates the unaccompanied MEDIAL [200-201], as well as the MEDIAL COLLIGATIONS “smell like”  and “smell of” .
 She smelled the clean tang of his breath (Finishing Touch)
 I smelled sweat and the drink on his breath. (Freely Sing)
 The chestnuts smell real good — all hot and nutty. (Bayswater)
 The hallway smelled beery and unclean. (Dark Dance)
 the sweet aroma of barbecue was smelled for miles (Houston Livestock Rodeo)www
 It was 7-8 ft tall with a broad back. A rancid stench was smelled (Bigfoot Sightings)www
 Paulette put his foot on her lap, tugged off the boot. […] “God, you smell!” (Sharpe’s Waterloo)
 You always find some good in people. I can’t stand them. They smell. (Sweet Dreams)
 His damp swimming costume […] smells like the bottom of a restaurant slop bin. (Lucker and Tiffany)
 The air smelled of rotten straw, damp, and an overpowering stench (My Enemy)
The ERGATIVE of “making smell” is for the MEDIAL:
 some brands of diesel now have additives to make them smell sweeter. (Daily Telegraph)
 Cigs make you smell like an ash-tray (miscellanea)BNC
The expanded meanings of “smelling” as having a “hunch” or “presentiment” turned out PEJORATIVE [206-07]; disapproval is implied even when the PERCEIVED in many contexts by itself might seem AMELIORATIVE, like “advantage”  or “profits” .
 I smell a con […] as surely as I smell a knocked off car, a crooked log book. (Be an Actor)
 “Keep your head down”, he advised. “I smell big trouble.” (Suburban Dead)
 It just shows you how pushy the educated classes can be when they smell an advantage (Awfully Big Adventure)
 Thomas smelled a bigger profit from the up-and-coming developers (Cry Alone)
V.39 The PROTOTYPE “tasting” has a LEXICOGRAMMAR similar to “smelling” in offering both ACTIVE [210-11] versus MEDIAL [212-13], yet (rarely) PASSIVE too . However, ATTITUDES favour AMELIORATIVE, as if eating were more pleasurable than sniffing, even for a “cold meal”  or “egg and chips” . Still, the COLLIGATIONS “taste like” and “taste of” are usually PEJORATIVE in the data, such as self-rolled cigarettes  or home-concocted liquor .
 He tasted all the bread in the sandwiches and approved the menu. (Belfast Telegraph)
 Corbett tasted the thick heady ale, pronounced himself satisfied (Prince of Darkness)
 His tea tasted excellent, and there was nobody to disturb him. (Ghost Stories)
 The tea tasted horrible but at least it gave me the chance to think. (Furniture)
 Each parcel of butter is tasted with a long scoop (Omelette)
 We want to say thank you for the wonderful wedding cake. It looked absolutely superb, and tasted delicious. We have saved the top layer for a future christening (Wedding Cakes Kent)WWW
 The egg and chips tasted wonderful, everything was great. (Vets Might Fly)
 The cigarette tasted like engine grease filtered through sawdust. (Murder Forestalled)
 The apricot brandy tasted of petrol, mixed with creosote and hair oil. (A Crowd Is Not Company)
In expanded meanings, “tasting” is undergoing EMOTION  or an EVENT .
 Vuk Drašković cropped up with his novel Knife and became instantly famous. Vuk tasted the joys of popularity and discovered a gift for oratory. (Miro Kovac at the Bosnian Institute)
 No visiting country has tasted victory in a competitive match in Dublin during Jack Charlton’s remarkable tenure as Republic of Ireland manager. (Belfast Telegraph)
The ERGATIVE of “making taste” is mainly MEDIAL , but I found some ACTIVES too like .
 We have dozens of ways of making lobsters taste different. (Other Side)
 Poison, however, is a different matter. That’s why I make my chaplain taste what I eat and drink. (Poisoned Chalice)
V.40 COMMANDS for PERCEPTIONS naturally prefer VERBS with INTENTION and CONTROL. I find “watch” and “listen” as genuine PERCEPTIONS in AFFIRMATIVE and NEGATIVE [223-226], but also in expanded meanings: “watch” as “be warned about” , and “listen to” as “be convinced by” . For the frequent “looking”, I find actual vision [229-30], plus the expanded meanings of “considering” in the ACTIVE  or “appearing” in the MEDIAL for EMOTIONS .
 Watch your fish carefully at feeding times (Fishkeeping)
 When walking, look up; fix eyes on a distant spot; do not watch your feet. (Hearing Loss)
 Listen to the wind among the pines! Yours is a glorious country. (Room With a View)
 I’m raving, I know; don’t listen, Mary; go on with your work. (Night and Day)
 “Oh, you daft loony, you call yourself a sergeant?” “Watch your mouth, Private Nobody.” (Sergeant Joe)
 “General Clinton”, I cried, “do not listen to his lies.” (Ballantrae)
 Just look what a mess you’re making — I’ve got to clean that up. (Dandelion Days)
 “Don’t look out of the window, little boy”, he shouted. “Look at the book.” (Love of a King)
 Look at all the money in the country if we only worked the old industries (Dubliners)
 Look happy — other people are waiting to be friendly. (Hearing Loss)
I find “see” and “hear” as genuine PERCEPTIONS only rarely, and nearly always AFFIRMATIVE [233-34]; and occurring in COMMANDS for other PROCESSES, such the ERGATIVES of “seeing” that some ACTION gets done  or “seeing to it” that it gets done .
 Isn’t he perfectly beautiful? Just see the dimples in his elbows. (House of Dreams)
 I will not be interrupted. Hear me in silence. (Pride)
 See that execution be done without fail on Master Ridley (Gladstone)
 We will see to it that terrorism is completely finished in Afghanistan in all its forms (Hamid Karzai)
The other three senses have comparatively few COMMANDS, and mostly in their straightforward meanings and in the (possibly sarcastic) AFFIRMATIVE:
 Touch the hand of a gentleman! (Little Dorrit)
 Touch me at your peril! or I will forget you are my mother’s son. (Sybil)
 Smell my hot goathide. (Ulysses)
 Look at the water. Smell it! That’s wot we drinks. (Bleak House)
 “Taste the wine again, Jane.” I obeyed him. (Eyre)
 We call it “Tres de Mayo” coffee. Taste it. (Nostromo)
V.41 For PERCEPTIONS, DENIALS of INTENTION like [243-48] are rare in my data. DENIALS of CONTROL are more common [249-53].
 I didn’t mean to see this band, but I couldn’t help but notice all the people on stage and their wacky outfits. (Nub Records)WWW
 I didn’t mean to watch it, but we ended up in front of a TV (Jim Bassett)WWW
 If he gets upset because he thinks that you were listening in to his private conversation, tell him that you didn’t mean to hear it (Ask Margo)WWW
 I didn’t mean to listen, but they’re so loud. (Wu Fei Duo)WWW
 She didn’t mean to sound brusque. Perhaps he just made her nervous. (Season for Murder)
 I didn’t mean to touch you! It was an accident, I swear. (Twisted Candy)WWW
 You made sure you draped yourself where I couldn’t help seeing you. (Two Can Share)
 He slept in a room opposite, with his door ajar. He couldn’t help hearing the row. (No Enemy)
 The bed was so narrow they couldn’t help touching at the shoulders (Wax Works)WWW
 I couldn’t help smelling the sweet smell from the apples. (Xiaochun)WWW
 The hungry guests couldn’t help tasting the masterpieces (Russian Journal)WWW
V.42 The most incontestably INNER PROCESS is COGNITION, whose PROTOTYPE CLAUSE CORE has the COGNISER as SUBJECT, COGNITION as VERB PHRASE, and COGNISED as OBJECT. Like the PERCEPTIONS of sight and hearing, the VERBS divide according to INTENTION or CONTROL. Without them, the PROTOTYPE would be “knowing” as “having knowledge” [254-55] or “being acquainted with [256-57]. With them as “obtaining knowledge”, the PROTOTYPES would be “learning” [258-59] or “finding out” [260-61]. The choice between AFFIRMATIVE and NEGATIVE fluctuates.
 Blacks now know the degree of dedication among their own members when they are called to action. (Steve Biko) [Note 2]
 The villages do not know the cause of this illness. (Developing World)
 Everybody in Meadow Brook knew the Bobbseys. (Bobbsey)
 I did not know the uncle well, but he knew my husband (Mother without a Mask)
 James Kilpatrick learned the skills of breeding horses (Ayrshire Heritage)BNC
 In prison, if you do not learn stealth, you die. (City of Dreams)
 We have to find out whether our position is a deliberate creation of God or an artificial fabrication of the truth by power-hungry people whose motive is authority. security, wealth, and comfort (Steve Biko)
 the system analyst has not found out the user requirements. (Information Systems)
More general or superficial COGNITION uses COLLIGATIONS with “about” [262-63] or “of” [264-65], meaning roughly “be/become informed about” or “aware of”.
 In Darwin’s lifetime, physicists did not know about radioactivity (Problems of Biology)
 They learned about selling, pricing, negotiating, licensing (Atomic Energy Authority)
 [The aid group] FAMILY knew of whole streets where women went out to work and men stayed at home and neglected the children. (Women and Social Policy)
 Pupils do not learn of the social and political implications of scientific discoveries. (Gender and Subject)
V.44 The PROTOTYPES “think about”  and “think of”  imply more CONTROL than “knowing” but less than “finding out”. These can mean “contemplate” , but also “have an opinion of”, usually PEJORATIVE . COLLIGATIONS with “all”  or “nothing but”  can suggest exclusive or obsessive thinking. “Think of” also occurs in expanded meanings for “have an idea”  or “show consideration for” ; when the SUBJECT is the IMPERSONAL PRO-NOUN “one”, the OBJECTS can be things or people coming readily to mind for a TOPIC .
 He thinks about football rigorously (Sunday People)
 In the midst of his own s*orrow and pain and torment, he thinks of this dying thief (sermon)BNC
 You know what the C**hurch thinks about marriage and divorce. Divorce is wrong in the eyes of God! (Love of a King)
[Britney Spears and Kevin Federline]
 Nancy reemerged at that moment, clutching the offending disk and deftly snapping it in two. “There. That's what I think of her and her stupid music.” (Just a Dream)WWW
 Heather Mills is seeking an £80million divorce deal and is only interested in money, Sir Paul McCartney has claimed. “All she thinks about is dollars." (Mirror)
[Paul and Heather Mills McCartney]
 Thought about nothing but cars for the first twenty-five years of his life, now he thinks about nothing but polo. (Polo)
 Then the gaffer thinks of a tactical plan for Elland Road (Today)
 A Brownie thinks of others before herself and does a good turn every day (Brownie Stories)
 Other tyrants have astutely combined populism and magic: one thinks of Papa Doc and Idi Amin. (Independent)
V.44 The TRANSITIVITY of COGNITIVE PROCESSES is peculiar. “Knowing” in ACTIVES back in [256-57], and in PASSIVES with the COGNISER having “by”  or “to”  hardly seems to constitute an ACTION like “doing to” or “being done to” (cf. V.17). Also, uses without the COGNISED can have a MEDIAL flavour like ENACTIVES [277-78].
 Mr Lear was known by everyone as “a lovely person and a gentleman at all times”. (Northern Echo)
 This document was known to Naval Intelligence and to the FBI. (FlyPast)
 “So what’s changed?” Deep down he knew. (Sharp End)
 All these constituents needed fusing and moulding into a unity in his mind. He thought and meditated; (Ramsey)
V.45 “Knowing”, “learning”, and “finding out” followed by a DEPENDENT CLAUSE imply that the CLAUSE expresses what somebody holds to be the truth [279-81]; “thinking” certainly does not , especially in the COLLIGATION “I thought” to indicate “it was supposed to be settled, but I see now it isn’t” .
 I know that you killed two people. I know that you’re in love with someone (Conjure Me)
 I learned that a geriatric cowboy had become President of the mightiest nation on earth (Redundancy of Courage)
 I found out that I came a poor second to the real love of her life — money. (Bay of Rainbows)
 I’ve done my best. I thought that was what I was being paid for. It seems I was wrong. (creative writing)BNC
 I thought I told you to leave me while I walked down to the Maru (Marilyn Manson)
V.46 I find ERGATIVE COGNITIONS for “making know” , “making learn” , and, most of all, “making think” [286-87].
 By his youth […] he made me know that I was growing old (Green Branch)
 When I was eighteen my father made me learn cards. (Nottingham Oral History)BNC
 Her undeniable sincerity appeared to make Mike think. (Driven by Love)
 The computer has been taught fishing tricks: it jiggles the line to make the squid think the bait is alive. (New Scientist)
V.47 COMMANDS for COGNITIONS are highly selective, and appear in the AFFIRMATIVE in WEIGHTY styles . Still, AFFIRMATIVE COMMANDS for “learn” and “find out” are more often found in smarmy discourses offering services, and, like “become” in V.29, imply confidence in achieving the result [291-92]; NEGATIVES like [293-94] are rare indeed.
 Know that our griefs are risen to the top, and overflow their banks. (Pericles)
 Learn that I am supplanted in heaven. (Golden Age of Myth)
 Look upon my grave. Think that I might have been as honest and as happy as you! (Dombey)
 Learn To Fly at Trade Winds Aviation Flight Training Center (Directory of Flight)w*ww
 Come to Harrods and find out the colours and fashions to suit your individual style. (Harpers & Queen)
 Don’t Learn Safety By Accident! (Safety Posters)www
 Do not learn your lines, as this can make the talk rather stilted (People in Organsations)
In expanded meanings, “just think” by itself  and “think of it”  are for “imagine something extravagant”; “think about” is for “consider” ; and “think of” is for “be considerate of” . “Don’t think” can mean “don’t fool yourself” [299;] “don’t think about” can be a forceful warning against doing something .
 Just think what a dull old world it would be without a Jerry Lee Lewis in it (Tony Papard)WWW
 Think of it: a little over £20-a-week per member of the family. (Guardian)
 “Think about marrying me.” “You are crazy!” (Sons of Heaven)
 Don’t be so selfish, Andrew. Think of poor Magnus. (English Crime)
 And don’t even think about trying to double-cross me. (Assassins)
 Don’t think for a second that the United States will not continue to have the mission that we are moving forward on to help continue to provide for the Iraqi people as the security situation goes forward (Ari Fleischer, April 2003)
V.48 DENIALS OF INTENTION like [300-01] are rare indeed. DENIALS of CONTROL like [302-03] are uncommon too, except for “think” .
 She wouldn’t be asking something personal if she didn’t mean to know. (Danielle)WWW
 While I was looking for this picture for you guys, I accidentally learned stuff that I didn’t mean to learn. (Oakiefanoakie)WWW
 As a diplomat in countries so high on Washington’s national security agenda, Walker couldn’t help knowing something about spying. (LA Times)
 As he waited, he couldn’t help thinking about that first night. (Rain)
V.49 For both PERCEPTION and COGNITION, some VERBS implying INTENTION or CONTROL prefer PROGRESSIVE [304-05], whereas others prefer SIMPLE [306-07].
 She was listening to her husband [hardly: hearing]
 Dad was looking at the fireplace. Mum was looking at Vern. (Gate-Crashing) [hardly: seeing]
 In France, the government understands the need for cultural things. (Art Newspaper) [hardly: is understanding]
 She knows all the folly and all the wickedness of my former life (Wildfell) [hardly: is knowing]
However, preferences can be modified in delicate contexts, e.g., PROGRESSIVE to signal an ongoing process:
 She studied it carefully as though it were some unfamiliar object she was seeing for the first time. (Sons of Heaven)
 Right now she was hearing as though from a long way off, the sounds somehow muffled. (Maggie)
 that’s how I felt, that you were getting into it, you were understanding how the bits tied together (GCSE chemistry tutorial)BNC
V.50 ASPIRATIONS are INNER ACTIONS whose PROTOTYPE CLAUSE CORE in the ACTIVE has ASPIRER as SUBJECT, an ASPIRATION as VERB PHRASE, and the ASPIRED either as OBJECT or else as INFINITIVE for another PROCESS; in the PASSIVE the ASPIRED is SUBJECT and the ASPIRER is an AGENTIVE ADVERBIAL. The leading PROTOTYPE would be “wanting”, which is enormously frequent in current usage, e.g., with an OBJECT , an INFINITIVE , or a PASSIVE, whether it is likely to be had  or is merely fancied .
 Minister for Health David Mellor wanted a fancy shell-shaped sink in “Whisper” pink (Daily Mirror)
 I desperately wanted to win that race but the other guys were just too fast today! (Colin Edwards)
 The one van was wanted to go to Wicken on a Saturday again. (Suffolk Archive)BNC
 Herschel Walker, the Dallas Cowboys running back, is wanted by the Minnesota Vikings (Independent)
Also frequent are the ERGATIVES of “wanting” someone else to do something, with an INFINITIVE in the ACTIVE  or the MEDIAL ; or something to get done to someone else, with an INFINITIVE in the PASSIVE .
 Morong residents said Mayor Norberto Linao Jr. allegedly wanted the police to release fugitive Allan Villaluna (Manila Standard)
 Ardent for liberty, he wanted the bishops to behave fiercely (Ramsey)
 The prosperous merchants and bankers, whose taxes paid for the police, wanted the traffic kept moving, burglars put behind bars, footpads eliminated. (Patently Murder)
V.51 The PROTOTYPE “wishing” is less frequent and adaptable. The ACTIVE with a DIRECT OBJECT is weighty style , except with an INDIRECT OBJECT too . Far more often, you “wish for” something” ; or “wish to do” something .
 he wished his thriving, yea, and in a lesser way, he wished the same to Roger (Well at the End of the World)
 Elizabeth wished her all imaginable happiness. (Pride)
 When persecution died down, many wished for restoration (History of Christianity)
 She wished frantically to go faster, and the broomstick sped away (Brownie Stories)
Some potential ERGATIVE COLLIGATIONS are compressed, e.g., wishing somebody dead  or yourself somewhere else . The preferred COLLIGATIONS are “wishing” someone to do something , or something to get done , or again “wishing that” something would happen .
 All the same, that night Gaily had wished her dead. (Gentleman and Ladies)
 As Ceres and her dismal companion approached him, Phoebus smiled on them so cheerfully that Hecate's wreath of snakes gave a spiteful hiss, and Hecate heartily wished herself back in her cave. (The Pomegranate Seeds)
 Mrs Mantini wished her to dust the furniture, burnish the coal scuttle, and clean the windows. (Dark Dance)
 If you wish interest to be paid to another account, advise your branch (Midland Bank)BNC
 He wished that Elaine would open her eyes, but she was blind drunk (Ladykiller)
Vigorous praise or enthusiasm can be expressed with the COLLIGATIONS “couldn’t wish for” + COMPARATIVE ; or SUPERLATIVE + “could wish for” ; or with “every”  or “all” .
 And, after the defeat on Monday, we couldn't wish for a better test than going to play the champions. (Stuart Pearce)
 You’re the most marvellous lover anyone could wish for. (Sudden Death)
 Gibraltar Point contains almost every type of habitat a discerning bird could wish for. (Birdwatcher)
 Emma was given all the consequence she could wish for (Emma)
V.52 The PROTOTYPE “hoping” has a LEXICOGRAMMAR like “wishing” but the INTENTION and CONTROL are weaker, COLLIGATING with “for” plus a DIRECT OBJECT , or “to” plus INFINITIVE for another PROCESS with the same AGENT [332-33]. The PROGRESSIVE turned up rather frequently [331, 333].
 Mozart was hoping for another court appointment under the new emperor (Mozart)
 Lakatos hoped to give rules for eliminating research programmes (Thing Called Science)
 New York City Ballet was hoping to have its first London season (Cranko)
[with Kyra Nichols and Ben Huys performing in Waltz Trilogy]
Because “hoping” is weaker, the parallel COLLIGATIONS for praise and enthusiasm tend to come out fainter [334-35].
 There you have it. Not a pretty death, but as peaceful as she could have hoped for, given the circumstances. (My Idea of Fun)
 A 1-1 draw was the best Hereford could have hoped for from this match. (TV news)
Neither the “death” nor the “draw” were all that welcome, but seemed good enough under the “circumstances”.
V.53 The PROTOTYPE “needing” is a more peculiar ASPIRATION. It can be close to “wanting” with the ASPIRER (or “needer”) as SUBJECT, plus an OBJECT  or an INFINITIVE  as the NEEDED. But maybe the “need” is merely assessed by the speaker or writer; the SUBJECT is not a conscious ASPIRER , and indeed might deny the need , especially bodily punishment . The latter usage occasionally occurs with “want” as well, despite the seeming paradox ; I find no similar uses of “wish” or “hope”.
 I need you, darling, both physically and spiritually (Enigma)
 She needed to be the centre of attention and her clothes showed it. (Jane’s Journey)
 the Government needs to give a higher priority to the quality of life (Independent)
 My God, the world needs criticizing today…criticizing to death. (Chatterly)
 An occasional child needs a whipping and would be improved by it. (Avonlea)
 The capricious creature probably wanted a whipping to bring her to the understanding of the principle called mastery, which is in man. (Egoist)
“Needing” and “wanting” are also parallel in COLLIGATING with a PARTICIPLE [342-43].
 The skirt, however, needed hooking at various angles (Voyage Out)
 Harriet only wanted drawing out, and receiving a few, very few hints. (Emma)
V.54 Like COGNITION, ASPIRATION has a peculiar TRANSITIVITY, not resembling ACTIONS of “doing to” or “being done to” (cf. V.17). PASSIVES do appear for “wanting”, as in [313-14] back in (V.50), but rarely for “wishing”, as in [344-45] here. PASSIVES for “hoping” are in my data only with “it” as SUBJECT, and mostly in official or bureaucratic discourse ; the ASPIRER is seldom mentioned .
 The Longbourn party […] had to wait for their carriages, which gave them time to see how heartily they were wished away (Pride)
 My daughter was once was wished Happy Birthday (conversation)BNC
 In Bonn it is hoped that there can be orderly change across the border (Independent)
 The island itself — its people and their occupations, its geology, fauna and flora, its architecture — would, it was hoped by the parents, widen horizons (Tomorrow)
PASSIVES for “needing” are the most frequent , COLLIGATING with PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES of “for”  and INFINITIVES of “to” .
 Diaghilev was convinced that another truly Russian ballet was needed (Ballet-Maker)
 Tenors are needed for Northwich and District Festival Choir (Liverpool Echo)
 Care and skill are needed to handle cask beer when it reaches the pub. (CAMRA)
V.55 ERGATIVE ASPIRATIONS are common for “making want” , less so for “making wish” , and least for “making hope”  and “making need” .
 The horrors of war made them want to prevent conflict. (High Places)
 Calendar Girls star Helen Mirren told today how she romped naked with Kylie Minogue’s boyfriend Olivier Martinez as they filmed The Roman Spring Of Mrs Stone -- and it made her wish she was years younger. (Breaking News Ireland)WWW
 I sat thinking of Rima with just a tinge of bitterness in my thoughts which made me hope that she would miss me as much as I missed her (Green Mansions)
 But misgiving had made her need me more than I needed her. (Letters in the Dark)
V.56 COMMANDS are implausible for these PROTOTYPE ASPIRATIONS. I found none for “want”, though I might invent some in a tongue-in-tongue Mills & Boon style [405-06]. I did find “wish” and “hope” [407-10], but less often than my intuition would have guessed. Samples for “need” I would again have to sultrify, as in .
 *“Please, darling, want me!” she hoarsed fiercely into his undulating sternum.
 *“Don’t want what you can’t have”, he mirthed, with his soul-snaring sneer.
 “There is no dishonour in wishing I had here some two scores of my gallant troop”. […] “Wish for whom thou wilt” (Ivanhoe)
 That would be the greatest misfortune of all! To find a man agreeable whom one is determined to hate! Do not wish me such an evil. (Pride)
 It’s gonna be bloody Christmas before we know where we are. Hang your stocking up, hope for the best. (conversation)BNC
 “The way you’ve listened gives me some hope.” “Don’t hope too much”. (Portrait of a Lady)
 *“Oh Ludicro, need me like I need you”, she concupissed all over him, her body aflame like an exploding jetliner.
V.57 DENIALS of INTENTION are mighty scarce [412-15]. DENIAL of CONTROL is a bit more plausible for “want”, “wish”, or “hope” [416-18]; but hardly for “need” .
 Damn it, I didn’t mean to want you. Love’s an addiction (Heart’s Ease)WWW
 I didn’t mean to wish her away. I — I didn’t know they were the words! (Bigess)WWW
 He didn’t mean to hope anything bad on his mom (Beverly)WWW
 “I didn’t mean to need you”. “Well, I didn’t expect to need you, either.” (GH in Review)WWW
 He couldn’t help wanting the impossible (Crystal Gardens)WWW w
 I felt very sorry for Beeney and couldn’t help wishing those directors would work more closely with her. (Project Greenlight)WWW
 They have relentlessly flaunted the preposterous Beckham brand of perfection, and it has been damaged. I couldn't help hoping that they find a way to ditch the brand, and save the marriage. (Jenny McCartney)
[background: Rebecca Loos]
 She didn’t want to know if there was another woman, but she couldn’t help needing to know. (Shadows of Hope)WWW
Notes to Part V
1 See above all Michael Halliday, An Introduction to Functional Grammar: Second Revised Edition (London: Arnold, 1994), which I have revised in various terms and filled out with more engaging data.
2 English version quoted in Steve Biko’s “White Racism and Black Consciousness”, p. 61.
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